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Exaptation
 

Exaptation

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Exaptations are creative reconfiguration of technology by their users, either as a by product of a previous function (co-option) or as

Exaptations are creative reconfiguration of technology by their users, either as a by product of a previous function (co-option) or as

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    Exaptation Exaptation Presentation Transcript

    • Exaptive Innovation
      • and creative epistemology
      • Jb Labrune - 2010
    • Phd Work 2007
      • Children and Creative Technologies, an exaptive phenomenon
      • Answering the question: Why children rarely use objects according to the rules edicted by their designers ?
    • More questions
      • What is the nature of creative re-configurations ?
      • Are these modifications similar in digital and physical spaces ?
      • How to help researchers to understand creative re-configurations ?
    • Empirical Study
      • Grounded Theory ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 )
        • Situated Action (Suchman, 1987)
        • SocioMaterial Reconfigurations (Orlikowski, 1987)
        • Co-Adaptation, Triangulation (Mackay, 1990)
    • Triangulation
      • Mackay, 1997 (hci, design, natural sciences)
        • http://www.lri.fr/~mackay/pdffiles/DIS97.Triangulate.pdf
    • Terrains
    • Findings e1
    • Findings e2
    • Findings e3
    • Findings e4
    • Findings e5
    • Findings e6
    • Thesis Child-Machine Interaction is an exaptive phenomenon
    • Exaptation
      • Flying is an exaptation
      • A secondary adaptation from thermic regulation evolution
    • Examples
    • Gould, Vrba
      • A character, previously shaped by natural selection for a particular function (an adaptation), is coopted for a new use—cooptation. (2) A character whose origin cannot be ascribed to the direct action of natural selection (a nonaptation), is coopted for a current use—cooptation. Gould and Vrba (1982, Table 1)
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exaptation
    • Spandrels
      • Lewontin and Gould (1979)
        • The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme
        • http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/205/1161/581
      • Gould (1997)
        • The exaptive excellence of spandrels as a term and prototype
        • http://www.pnas.org/content/94/20/10750.abstract?sid=c80b8cc0-4a00-4bb6-ae92-3e9897ef5da5
    • Spandrels
      • By-Product of Functional evolution, or design iteration
      • Morphogenetic By-Products
      Dorsoventral Pattern Formation in Graphosoma Lineatum
    • Open Spaces
      • Functions
      • By-Products
      • Ambiguity and Paradox of Openess
      • Designing vs Non-design (and nature vs designer pace)
    • Epigenetic Landscape http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetics Conrad Hal Waddington - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Hal_ Waddington
    • IdeaGarden 2010 http://web.media.mit.edu/~labrune/igarden/igarden-lg-final.ogv
    • Creative Documentation
      • Capturing Iterations vs capturing context
      • Reflecting on intention, capture and reflection itself
      • Monitoring (Surveillance) vs Joint Attention
    • Inspiration
      • Reggio Emilia for adults
      • New Tools for Creativity support but also for creative reflection on documentation process
      • Debate, Co-Evolution, non-hegemonic process in design and its cultural context
    • Creativity Research Tools
      • Specialised vs Context
      • Visual documentation
      • Visual Anthropology
        • visual psychology ?
        • visual epistemology ?
        • visual phenomenology ?
      Free Camera ? >>> free culture / research http://www.opencamera.cc / http://cinema.elphel.com / >> anthropology.elphel ??
    • Open-source camera
      • How to make (almost) anything 2009
        • http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/MIT/863.09/people/labrune/index.html
      • Fabbable
      • programmable
      • open-source
    • DIY Trend
      • Ubiquitous Kwnoledge (Digital, Citizen science, Magazines, workshops, conferences)
      • New places of production and understanding of knwoledge (Fablabs, Dorkbot, DIY communities around the world)
      • DIY programming cultral probes, technological probes
    • References
      • The Ambiguity of Play [Brian Sutton-Smith, 1997]
      • CST: Creativity Support Tools [Shneiderman, 2005]
      • Edith Ackermann "Perspective-Taking and Object-Construction” In Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World (Kafai, Y. & and Resnick, M. Eds.). Chap. 2, pp. 25-37. Northdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1996.
      • Gould, Stephen Jay, and Elizabeth S. Vrba (1982), "Exaptation — a missing term in the science of form," Paleobiology 8 (1): 4–15.