Exaptation
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Exaptation

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Exaptations are creative reconfiguration of technology by their users, either as a by product of a previous function (co-option) or as

Exaptations are creative reconfiguration of technology by their users, either as a by product of a previous function (co-option) or as

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  • 1. Exaptive Innovation
    • and creative epistemology
    • Jb Labrune - 2010
  • 2. Phd Work 2007
    • Children and Creative Technologies, an exaptive phenomenon
    • Answering the question: Why children rarely use objects according to the rules edicted by their designers ?
  • 3. More questions
    • What is the nature of creative re-configurations ?
    • Are these modifications similar in digital and physical spaces ?
    • How to help researchers to understand creative re-configurations ?
  • 4. Empirical Study
    • Grounded Theory ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 )
      • Situated Action (Suchman, 1987)
      • SocioMaterial Reconfigurations (Orlikowski, 1987)
      • Co-Adaptation, Triangulation (Mackay, 1990)
  • 5. Triangulation
    • Mackay, 1997 (hci, design, natural sciences)
      • http://www.lri.fr/~mackay/pdffiles/DIS97.Triangulate.pdf
  • 6. Terrains
  • 7. Findings e1
  • 8. Findings e2
  • 9. Findings e3
  • 10. Findings e4
  • 11. Findings e5
  • 12. Findings e6
  • 13. Thesis Child-Machine Interaction is an exaptive phenomenon
  • 14. Exaptation
    • Flying is an exaptation
    • A secondary adaptation from thermic regulation evolution
  • 15. Examples
  • 16. Gould, Vrba
    • A character, previously shaped by natural selection for a particular function (an adaptation), is coopted for a new use—cooptation. (2) A character whose origin cannot be ascribed to the direct action of natural selection (a nonaptation), is coopted for a current use—cooptation. Gould and Vrba (1982, Table 1)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exaptation
  • 17. Spandrels
    • Lewontin and Gould (1979)
      • The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme
      • http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/205/1161/581
    • Gould (1997)
      • The exaptive excellence of spandrels as a term and prototype
      • http://www.pnas.org/content/94/20/10750.abstract?sid=c80b8cc0-4a00-4bb6-ae92-3e9897ef5da5
  • 18. Spandrels
    • By-Product of Functional evolution, or design iteration
    • Morphogenetic By-Products
    Dorsoventral Pattern Formation in Graphosoma Lineatum
  • 19. Open Spaces
    • Functions
    • By-Products
    • Ambiguity and Paradox of Openess
    • Designing vs Non-design (and nature vs designer pace)
  • 20. Epigenetic Landscape http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetics Conrad Hal Waddington - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Hal_ Waddington
  • 21. IdeaGarden 2010 http://web.media.mit.edu/~labrune/igarden/igarden-lg-final.ogv
  • 22. Creative Documentation
    • Capturing Iterations vs capturing context
    • Reflecting on intention, capture and reflection itself
    • Monitoring (Surveillance) vs Joint Attention
  • 23. Inspiration
    • Reggio Emilia for adults
    • New Tools for Creativity support but also for creative reflection on documentation process
    • Debate, Co-Evolution, non-hegemonic process in design and its cultural context
  • 24. Creativity Research Tools
    • Specialised vs Context
    • Visual documentation
    • Visual Anthropology
      • visual psychology ?
      • visual epistemology ?
      • visual phenomenology ?
    Free Camera ? >>> free culture / research http://www.opencamera.cc / http://cinema.elphel.com / >> anthropology.elphel ??
  • 25. Open-source camera
    • How to make (almost) anything 2009
      • http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/MIT/863.09/people/labrune/index.html
    • Fabbable
    • programmable
    • open-source
  • 26. DIY Trend
    • Ubiquitous Kwnoledge (Digital, Citizen science, Magazines, workshops, conferences)
    • New places of production and understanding of knwoledge (Fablabs, Dorkbot, DIY communities around the world)
    • DIY programming cultral probes, technological probes
  • 27. References
    • The Ambiguity of Play [Brian Sutton-Smith, 1997]
    • CST: Creativity Support Tools [Shneiderman, 2005]
    • Edith Ackermann "Perspective-Taking and Object-Construction” In Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World (Kafai, Y. & and Resnick, M. Eds.). Chap. 2, pp. 25-37. Northdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1996.
    • Gould, Stephen Jay, and Elizabeth S. Vrba (1982), "Exaptation — a missing term in the science of form," Paleobiology 8 (1): 4–15.