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  1. 1. Unit 17 MUSICAL LIFE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AND BEYOND Chapter 36 The Twentieth Century and Beyond •Music (1884 definition): That one of the fine arts which is concerned with the combination of sounds with a view to beauty of form and the expression of emotion; also, the science of the law as or principles (of melody, harmony, rhythm, etc.) by which this art is regulated. •Music (1999 definition) Sounds, usually produced by instruments or voices, that are arranged or played in order to create a pleasing
  2. 2. Music and Technology • • • • Sound recording to internet Impact on every aspect of music Electrical Revolution of 1920’s Refined equipment making possible the conversion of sound into an electrical signal • First Commercial broadcast in US – 11/02/1920 KDKA Pittsburgh station • RCA and NBC • 1927 “Talking films” The Jazz Singer
  3. 3. • Early electronic instruments • 1919 – Léon Theremin, Russian inventor The Theremin – performers don’t actually touch the instrument, but move hands in relation to the antennae 1930’s Hammond Organ Rickenbaker solid-body steel guitar Gibson and Fender guitars First amplified instrument commonly used was electric guitar
  4. 4. • Magnetic Tape Recording • Length of a recording jumped from three or four minutes on a 78 rpm disc to thirty minutes or more • Sound quality improved • Composers used electronically recorded sounds • Multi-track recording
  5. 5. Television • Exploded as a commercial enterprise after WWII • Ed Sullivan Show – Beatles and Elvis • Leonard Bernstein’s Young People’s Concerts • Replaced radio as the all-purpose mass medium
  6. 6. Synthesizers • An instrument capable of generating sounds electronically • Mark II – very large and had to be programmed • Robert Moog – developed the Minimoog, a portable synthesizer designed for live performance • Analog synthesizers - generated sound by varying voltage (replaced by digital instruments)
  7. 7. Digital Technology • Digital Revolution began in 1970’s • Unlimited reproduction of the original sound source without deterioration • Sampling – transfer of recorded sound • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) enables communication between digital instruments and devices • Audio workstations and computer software • Sound editing and a host of digital instruments have come from this
  8. 8. • We now live in a post-literate musical world • Notation software “writes” the music • Ability to deliver audio over Internet • Music grew into a massive business during twentieth century. • Emergence of popular music as the dominant commercial force in musical life
  9. 9. Folk Traditions • Hungarian Composers Béla Bartók and Zoltan Kodály • Traveled throughout Hungary collecting the songs and dances of peasants in rural areas • Ethnomusicology- the study of music within particular cultures • Jazz is profoundly influenced by folk traditions • Jazz became “America’s Art Music”
  10. 10. Twentieth Century Music • Fragmentation, not continuity • New instruments and new vocal and instrumental sounds • Broader understanding of “Musical” sound • Atonality – the principle of avoiding both the tonic and its corollary • What seems normal today was revolutionary at mid-century and unimaginable at the beginning of the twentieth century