Hard disk

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Hard disk

  1. 1. HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD) Jazz
  2. 2. STORAGE DEVICES  One of the widely used Hardware for Storing Permanent Data is HARD DISK DRIVE  It is used for Storing of DATA for long term use.
  3. 3. Hard Disk Drive  Introduction  Hard Disk Drive is a nonvolatile data storage device, it means that the storage device retains the data even when no power is supplied to the computer.  Some of the profound changes in PC hard disk storage are its capacity, data transfer rates from the media.
  4. 4. Topic 4 - Hard drive Interface  Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE)/EIDE  It is used to attach Mass Storage media devices to the computer.  The next generations of IDE interface is Enhanced IDE (EIDE)  Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)  It is capable of supporting up to 7 to 15 devices.  Serial ATA (SATA)   It is an internal or inside-the-box interface technology. External SATA is commonly known as ESATA.  USB  It is an External , pocket Harddisk
  5. 5. Topic 1 - Features  Storage Capacity  The storage capacity of the hard disk refers to the amount of disk space that can be used to store the user data.  Data Transfer Speed  There are two ways to measure the speed of the disk drive  Average seek time  Transfer rate  Stability  It has been measured by Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF).
  6. 6. TYPES OF HDD HDD PATA/IDE (PARALLEL ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY ATTACHMENT) SATA (PARALLEL ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY ATTACHMENT) USB/EXTERNAL HARD DISK
  7. 7. Hard Drive Controllers     IDE (aka parallel ATA) EIDE SCSI SATA
  8. 8. IDE HARD DISK DRIVE  IDE Hard Disk is a 40 Pin Connector Hard Disk and is Connected to IDE connector on Motherboard
  9. 9. Motherboard Connections Primary IDE controller is usually faster – ATA/66, 100 or 133. Secondary controller operates at ATA/33 Normally, the IDE controllers Identified as IDE1 and IDE2 on the motherboard Onboard Controllers (2 x 40 pin male ports)
  10. 10. INTERNAL PARTS OF THE HDD
  11. 11. INTERNAL PARTS…          PLATTER SPINDLE MOTOR HEAD ACTUATOR ACTUATOR READ/WRITE HEAD LOGIC BOARD CONNECTOR POWER SUPPLY CONNECTOR OUTCASING BOX
  12. 12. Topic 3 - Hard Disk Drive Components      A flat, round disk called platters is used in a hard disk The platters are loaded on a spindle. Spindle motor spins the platters. Electromagnetic read/write devices called heads are mounted onto sliders. Each platter has two heads
  13. 13. Topic 3 - Hard Disk Drive Components  Platters  This platter is made up of substrate material, which gives structure and rigidity  Platters are physically connected in the middle and driven by the spindle motor.  Hard Disk Read/Write Heads  The hard disk drive read/write heads act like an interface between the magnetic media and the part of the hard disk.  Heads are joined to the head actuator move across the disk.
  14. 14. Topic 3 - Hard Disk Drive Components  Types of Read or Write Heads     Ferrite Head – It is used for magnetic recording. Metal in Gap Head (MIG) - A metal substance has been filled in the gap, and increases the resistance of magnetic saturation. Thin Film Head - This head floats closer to the disk than the other heads. Magneto Resistive Head - The MR head can change resistance.
  15. 15. Topic 3 - Hard Disk Drive Components  Giant Magneto Resistive Head (GMR) - It will work on multilayer of materials dumped in it.  Head Actuator Mechanism   Stepper motor actuators It is an electrical motor that can step from location to other, with click-stop positions  Voice Coil Actuator   It is used to shift the head arms in and out . It has a special guidance system
  16. 16. Topic 3 - Hard Disk Drive Components  Spindle Assemble   Spindle Motor   The spindle motors are directly connected to the hard disk platter spindle The motor that spins the platters is called the spindle motor. Logic Board (s)  The logic boards have electronics that control the drive’s spindle and head actuator systems.
  17. 17. PLATTER  PLATTER IS A METALIC PLATE WHICH IS USED TO STORE THE DATA IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM.  THE DATA IS SAVED IN TRACK,SECTOR & CLUSTER FORMAT  THERE CAN BE MORE THAN ONE PLATTER IN A HARD DISK
  18. 18. SPINDLE MOTOR  SPINDLE MOTOR is used to revolve the Platter to access the each and every part of the HARD DISK  The revolving of the platter is measured in RPM (RPM stands for REVOLUTION PER MIN/ROTATIONS PER MIN)  Current RPM ranges from 7,200 to 15,000
  19. 19. ACTUATOR  ACTUATOR is used to make access the Read Write Head to the every corner of the Platter  If we consider the live example for the Actuator, it is like a CAR WIPER which moves in 45 degree approximately
  20. 20. READ AND WRITE HEAD  Read Write Head often refereed as R/WHEAD  It is a Small Black Device which is responsible for the Operation of Reading and Writing.  It is used for Reading and Writing operations from the HARD DISK
  21. 21. READ AND WRITE PROCESS  Platters are divided into 512 byte sectors. These sectors are the area on the platter that data is written to. The platters have a magnetic coating applied to them that is extremely sensitive to magnetism.
  22. 22. LOGIC BOARD  IT is a Circuit Board which is used to send the signals and logical operations related to HARD DISK
  23. 23. WORKING  While the platters are rotating in a circle, the read/write heads are moved over the disk surface to the location where they need to write (or save) information. The read/write heads do not actually touch the surface of the disk platters; instead, they “hover” about ten micro-inches (or millionths of an inch) above —that’s not even enough space to place a hair between the read/write head and the platter’s surface. This design helps improve disk performance, because a read/write head that made contact with the platter would cause friction, slowing down the rotation speed of the disk.
  24. 24. Hard Drive Controller The controller allows the hard drive to send/receive data using the external data bus Hard Drive Controller In IDE hard drives, the contoller circuitry is built into the drive External Data Bus
  25. 25. THE STORAGE MEATHOD  THE DATA IS STORED IN THE FORM OF TRACKS SECTOR AND CLUSTERS
  26. 26. TRACKS  Just as there are grooves, or tracks, on a record or music CD, there are also tracks on each platter. These tracks are evenly spaced across the platter’s surface.
  27. 27. SECTORS  The platter is divided into pie slices, thus dividing the tracks into 512-byte sectors. Sectors are the actual storage areas for data, and each has an address that is made up of the platter side number, the track number, and the sector number on that track.
  28. 28. SECTOR
  29. 29. CLUSTERS  A group of any number of sectors can make up a cluster. When a partition is formatted, the file system will determine the cluster size based off the partition size. For example, a partition that is 2GB in size formatted as FAT will use a 32K-cluster size. That same 2GB partition formatted as FAT32 will use only a 4K-cluster size.
  30. 30. Topic 2 - Geometry of Hard Drive  Cylinders  It is a set of all platters.  Heads  It is used to read data from the hard disk drive’s disk platters  Sectors per Track  A track is a one ring of data on single side  Tracks are divided into many sectors.  Write pre-compensation  Used to adjust the smaller tracks
  31. 31. Topic 2 - Geometry of Hard Drive  Landing-Zone  When the system is turned off, the BIOS should send the heads of hard disk to the cylinder where there is no data.  Modes  Three methods available for data addressing  CHS (Cylinder Head Sector)  LBA (Logical Block Address)  ECHS (Extended Cylinder Head Sector)
  32. 32. MOUNTING A DRIVE IN CABINET
  33. 33. Connecting an IDE drive 4 prong Molex Connector 40-pin IDE ribbon cable Red line aligned with pin 1
  34. 34. IDE Cables      Ribbon Rounded No twist! 40 pin Max speed = 33Mb/sec 40 pin/80 wires Max speed = 133Mb/sec
  35. 35. 40 wire IDE ribbon cable 33 Mb/sec max 80 wire IDE ribbon cable 133Mb/sec max
  36. 36. SATA Cable 4-wire data cable 7 pin connector Motherboard SATA socket
  37. 37. BASIC CONNECTION
  38. 38. IDE1 and IDE2 at Startup
  39. 39. PATA Design Primary IDE Channel Secondary IDE Channel Max of 133 Mb/sec Master Slave Max of 133 Mb/sec Master Slave
  40. 40. SATA Design Drive 2 150 Mb/sec 150 Mb/sec Drive 1 SATA Controller Drive 3 150 Mb/sec 150 Mb/sec Drive 4
  41. 41. MASTER/SLAVE SETTINGS
  42. 42. MASTER/SLAVE
  43. 43. Configuring a Hard Disk 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Connect data cable and power cable Power up PC, enter BIOS Standard CMOS settings Auto detect or enter CHS values Create partitions Format each drive Install O.S.
  44. 44. Hard Drive Partitioning     What is it? Primary Partition Extended Partition Logical Drives
  45. 45. Partitions Primary Partition Extended Partition Primary Partition Logical Drive 1 Drive Letter = c: Drive Letter = d: Set to “Active” Stores O.S. Logical Drive 2 Drive Letter = e: Hard Disk
  46. 46. A+ Partition Facts  A maximum of 4 primary partitions per disk  Up to 24 logical drives per disk  Each partition must be formatted  A PC must have at least 1 primary partition  The primary partition is where the O.S. is stored  Extra partitions are optional
  47. 47. Disk Management
  48. 48. Topic 9- File System  The file system decides the manner in which data is accurately arranged on a hard disk drive.  The main function of the FAT is to give the mapping between clusters and the physical location of data in terms of cylinders, tracks, and sectors.  FAT 12  FAT 16  FAT 32  NTFS
  49. 49. Windows File Systems  File System is created when you format the drive. The types are FAT 16 FAT 32 NTFS  Formatting also creates the boot record, the root directory, the File Allocation Table and the data area
  50. 50. FAT 16  File Allocation Table 16-bit  A max of 216 = 65,536 addressable sectors  Max partition capacity of 65,536 x 512 = 33Mb  Does not support disks larger than 2.1 Gb  Used up to Win95 release 1  1.44 Mb floppy disks, zip disks and USB memory sticks are formatted using FAT
  51. 51. FAT 32  File Allocation Table 32 bit  A max of 232 = 4 billion addressable sectors  Grouped 4 512 byte sectors together = a cluster  1 cluster = 2048 bytes or 2Kb  Max hard disk size = 2 Tb  Max partition size of (4 billion x 512 bytes) = 32Gb  Allows for up to 24 logical drives  Windows 95 release 2 onwards  No mechanism for file security
  52. 52. NTFS New Technology File System 64 bit file system Windows NT, 2000, XP Main Advantage = Security (encryption)  Supports partition sizes up to 2048 Gb or 2Tb    
  53. 53. Topic 5 - Data Organization in Hard Disk  The data is recorded on the magnetic tracks of a hard disk drive.  Each track is divided into number of sectors.  Data is pressed on each sector.  Microcomputers’ hard disk drives are following the soft sector format.  In the latest soft sector format, the track number, head number and sector number is written on each sector’s ID field.
  54. 54. Topic 6 - Data Read and Write Operation  Hard disk heads convert electrical signals to magnetic signals and magnetic signals to electrical signals.  By using encoding method, the stored data has been recorded onto the hard disk.  This encoding method translates zeros and ones into patterns of magnetic flux reversals.
  55. 55. Topic 7 - Hard Disk Drive Configuration  Cable (Data and Power)  Power Cable  Interface Cable  Jumper Settings (Master/ Slave/ Cable Select)  They are sets of pins with caps placed in various arrangements.  In some drives manufacturers have cryptic MS, SL, CS initials  BIOS settings  The BIOS made after 1996 will support a drive larger than 4GB.
  56. 56. Topic 7 - Hard Disk Drive Configuration  IO Address   Devices use memory location for interfacing with the computer. A typical hard disk controller uses 1F0-1F7h I/O port.  Interrupt Request Line (IRQ)  It permits a hardware device to look inside the computer.  When the device need attention, IRQ makes direct line to the microprocessor  DMA Channel  Without CPU interference, the DMA controller transfers data from a drive to the computer’s memory.
  57. 57. Topic 8 - Hard Disk Drive Setup  Low level formatting  The disk’s tracks are divided into a specific number of sectors.  LLF is most important for the proper operation of the drive.  Partitioning  The hard disk drive can support separate file systems by creating a partition on a hard disk drive.  High level formatting  The operating system marks the structures essential for managing files .  High-level formatting is the creation of a table of contents for the disk
  58. 58. Topic 8 - Hard Disk Drive Setup  FDISK  For example: 4 gig hard drives, divided it into 4 partitions.  The four independent drives are ‘C’, ‘D’, ‘E’, and ‘F’.     'C' partition = 2 Giga Bytes 'D' partition = 1 Giga Bytes 'E' partition = 500MB 'F' partition = 500MB
  59. 59. Topic 10 - Sector Organization  Cluster  Grouping sectors into larger blocks are called clusters .  Master Boot Record (MBR)  The location of the master boot record is cylinder 0, head 0, and sector 1.  DOS Boot Record (DBR)  In the beginning of the boot drive the DOS boot record will load .  Boot Sector  The two tasks of boot sector is to load in the operating system and to inform the user information about the disk.
  60. 60. Topic 10 - Sector Organization  File Allocation Table  The FAT has entry for each cluster, which describes how the file has been used, and which files are free for use.  Root Directory  FAT file system uses root directory to format disk.  Data Area  The content of the files are stored in data area.
  61. 61. Topic 11- Common Errors & Troubleshooting

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