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2014 MN Career Development Assoc (MCDA) Conference
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2014 MN Career Development Assoc (MCDA) Conference


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  • 1. + Empowered Career Services Coaching with Immigrant and International Clients Annual Conference April 25, 2014
  • 2. + Yuki Tokuji, MA University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, International Student & Scholar Services Jessica Ayub, MA Adjunct Instructor with International Students at Concordia University-Saint Paul Roundtable and Resource Handout Co-Presenters: Annual Conference April 25, 2014 Minnesota Career Development Association Empowered Career Services Coaching with Immigrant and International Clients
  • 3. + Career Development Employment Seeking Career Services Office Settings Section Divisions Empowered Career Services Coaching with Immigrant and International Clients
  • 4. + Career Development Empowered Career Services Coaching with Immigrant and International Clients
  • 5. + Coaching Technique: Increasing Career Decision Self-Efficacy and Vocational Identity in Career Development Concerning a “common theme expressed by students; that they have not viewed career as their own but rather the product of external factors (e.g., test scores, parental choices, societal needs).”
  • 6. + One Week Group Class or “Academy” Human Agency Based- Individual Transformation (HABIT) model based on the human agency theory of Bandura (2001, 2006) EXCERPT on South Korean High School Students*: …Data from a time-series experimental study with the former participants of the career leadership academy evidenced that the participants’ human agency, hope, career decision self-efficacy, and vocational identity had increased, and their dysfunctional career thoughts had decreased after attending the program . (Yoon, Ahn, & Hutchison, 2012). 1. Self-reflection (Self-reflectiveness) 2. Forethought 3. Clear Intentions (Intentionality) 4. Execution (Self-reactiveness) SOURCE: National Career Development Association (NCDA) – From the Archives dated 06/01/2012 in Career Convergence Web Magazine: Fostering Human Agency: Working with Students in South Korea A/pt/sd/news_article/59739/_se lf/layout_ccmsearch/false Adapting to Higher Education Settings? * NCDA Article Provided for Possible Transition of Intervention aimed at implementing in 7-12 U.S. Education Settings
  • 7. + Coaching Technique: Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation (Linda Gottfredson) Gottfredson’s Theory
  • 8. + Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation (Linda Gottfredson)  Sample of individual coaching or in-class activity:  Using drawn graph of Gottfredson’s Theory (male/female, prestige, education levels)  Students pointed out self-limiting career choices and recognition of cultural/societal influencers  Explored decision-making, shaped by salient factors of family of origin, community, etc. Available at:
  • 9. + Explore with Clients: Do you think society or culture had anything to do with your decision? Note that Gottfredson’s Theory is Not Specifically Targeted to People with International Perspectives Jessica has used with students of color at Concordia University with success
  • 10. + Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation (Linda Gottfredson) Sextype Rating Feminine HighLow Masculine Prestige Construction Worker Psychiatrist Receptionist Nurse Real Estate Agent Surgeon Elementary Teacher Federal Judge High School Teacher Tolerable-Level Boundary Tolerable-Effort Boundary Tolerable-SextypeBoundary Zone of Acceptable Alternatives
  • 11. + Holland RIASEC Codes (Gottfredson, 1981) Source:
  • 12. + Additional Prezi Presentation Source:
  • 13. + Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation (Linda Gottfredson)  Circumscription – Process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily upon gender and prestige  Guided by 5 principles  Children capable of understanding and organizing complex information  Occupational preferences reflect attempts to implement and enhance self-concept  Children integrate complex distinctions among people (prestige) while integrating the more concrete phenomena (sex roles)  Children progressively eliminate occupational options as self-concept complexity and clarity increases  Process is gradual and not readily obvious
  • 14. + Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation (Linda Gottfredson) Source:  Principles operate throughout 4 cognitive stages which describe process  Orientation to size and power  Orientation to sex roles  Orientation to social valuation  Orientation to internal, unique self
  • 15. + Circumscription, Compromise, and Self-Creation (Linda Gottfredson)  Compromise – Modifying occupational choices in light of limiting factors, whether internally or externally imposed  Tolerable-effort boundary  Tolerable-level boundary  Tolerable-sextype boundary  Zone of acceptable alternatives  Self-Creation – Included in circumscription process; altering self-concept in light of developmental or environmental factors
  • 16. + Employment Seeking Empowered Career Services Coaching with International Clients
  • 17. + Work Authorization for International Applicants Applicants should be knowledgeable about their work authorization so they can explain it in interviews.  F-1 students  Curricular Practical Training (CPT)  Optional Practical Training (OPT) *17-month extension of post-completion OPT is available for STEM degree holders  J-1 students  Academic Training (AT)  H-1B visa  Other types of employment-based visas To Learn More:
  • 18. +Identify Potential Employers…  International companies  They often desire individuals with languages skills, respect for diversity, and a knowledge of overseas economies.  Companies that have previously sponsored H-1B visas  They are familiar with and have successfully completed the hiring process before.   Medium and small companies  Although they are not large companies, they may have openings for international students and should not be discounted.  Join professional organizations Recommended Resources – See “International Students” Section:
  • 19. + Possible Cultural Barriers in Job Search  Individual responsibility in job search  Preparation: research organization, networking, join professional organizations, gain experience  Self promotion  Show confidence, assertiveness, talk about individual accomplishments and skills  Direct vs indirect communication  Eye contact, shake hands, direct responses to questions  How to show “respect”
  • 20. + Tips in Coaching International Clients  Reality check: Help clients understand the expectations in the U.S. job search process  What do they need to do to be a strong candidate?  What advantages do they have?  Provide concrete examples, and Practice  Including first impression, elevator speech, and sample answers  Different ways to gain experience  Paid positions are not the only option for them to gain experience
  • 21. + Source: Self-Promotion Quiz Imagine you’re at a networking event in the United States and you hear your colleague make the following statement to a potential employer: “… I’d be very interested in learning more about your company to see if there might be a fit for me. Before doing my MBA, I worked at Bain Consulting and then prior to that was an officer in the army…” Understanding that this is only a portion of the conversation, how would you judge what you happened to hear? As:  (a) Too self-promotional:  the person is speaking too positively about himself for the situation.  (b) Not self-promotional enough:  should give more details at this point in the conversation about specific accomplishments at Bain (such as projects completed or impact on clients) as well as additional information about military service.  (c) Just about right:  This is self-promotional, but the context allows it and the person is providing appropriate and relevant information to position himself in a positive light.
  • 22. + Possible Strengths as an International Applicant  International perspective/Cultural sensitivity  Language  Desire to work/Enthusiasm  Diversity  Adaptability  Independence  Problem solving  Communication skills
  • 23. + Career Services Office Settings Empowered Career Services Coaching with Immigrant and International Clients
  • 24. + Engagement with International Clients  Tech Talk: International Students’ Use of Social Media and Technology  Customize—How can you customize established programs to address cultural differences or communication barriers, or incorporate native platforms, such as Viadeo or Renren? An advisory board is extremely helpful in this area, especially one focused on technology. They review our social media platforms, as well as write for our department’s blog. They also discuss their use of networking platforms that I, as an American, have never used. Their stories and insights help other international students and our department. For example, we have a special introduction to social networking workshop for international students, and include the basics of Facebook.  [Recruit Participation &] Collaborate—What departments specialize in international student relations? Which degree programs have the highest international populations? What student groups have international members? Connect with these organizations and offer custom appointments, i.e. LinkedIn profile reviews and programs to discuss use of technology in a professional capacity. Orientations are an ideal opportunity to help students acclimate to the different technological and social media standards; this is especially true for one- or two-year degree programs, in which students hit the ground running. Source:
  • 25. +  Partner around Promoting Multicultural / Global Citizen Outcomes by Supporting Students-Alumni Pursuit of Related Curricular & Co-Curricular Options:  Degree Program & Professional Engagement  Campus, Professional, & Community Leadership  Civic & Global Engagement  Service-Learning & Community Volunteerism  Domestic / International Internships  Education,Working, and/or Living Abroad Career Center’s Role in Internationalization Want To Build a Community of People with International Perspectives? Extend initiatives to encourage all students-alumni populations
  • 26. + Resources: National Career Development Association (NCDA) – From the Archives dated 06/01/2012 in Career Convergence Web Magazine: Fostering Human Agency: Working with Students in South Korea: Gottfredson’s Theory: Images: Gottfredson’s: Work Authorization: MN H1B Visa Sponsoring Companies: See “International Students” Section: Blog on Self-Promotion: Career Offices: /
  • 27. + Thank you Minnesota Career Development Association { Particular thanks extended to } Sue Holm, Chair of the Program Committee Sally Power, Program Committee member