Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges <ul><li>Anatomy  is the study of the biological form of an organism </li></ul><...
Fig. 40-1
Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization <ul><li>Size and shape affect the way ...
Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape <ul><li>The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal’s shape,...
Fig. 40-2 (a) Tuna (b) Penguin (c) Seal
Exchange with the Environment <ul><li>An animal’s size and shape directly affect how it exchanges energy and materials wit...
Fig. 40-3 Exchange 0.15 mm (a) Single cell 1.5 mm (b) Two layers of cells Exchange Exchange Mouth Gastrovascular cavity
<ul><li>Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion...
<ul><li>More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pe...
Fig. 40-4 0.5 cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O 2...
Fig. 40-4a Nutrients Mouth Digestive system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Ex...
Fig. 40-4b Lining of small intestine 0.5 cm
Fig. 40-4c Lung tissue 50 µm
Fig. 40-4d Kidney tubules 10 µm
<ul><li>In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with  interstitial fluid ,   which allows for the movement of ma...
<ul><li>Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into  tissues  that have different functions </li></ul><u...
Table 40-1
<ul><li>Different tissues have different structures that are suited to their functions </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues are class...
Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Epithelial tissue  covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the b...
<ul><li>The arrangement of epithelial cells may be  simple  (single cell layer),  stratified  (multiple tiers of cells), o...
Fig. 40-5a Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium ...
Fig. 40-5b Apical surface Basal surface Basal lamina 40 µm
Connective Tissue <ul><li>Connective tissue  mainly binds and supports other tissues </li></ul><ul><li>It contains sparsel...
<ul><li>There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagenous fibers  p...
<ul><li>Connective tissue contains cells, including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts  that secrete the protein of extrace...
<ul><li>In vertebrates, the fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue:  </li></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue  stores fat for insulation and  fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood  is composed of blood cel...
Fig. 40-5c Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Elastic fiber 120 µm Cartilage Chondrocytes 100 µm ...
Fig. 40-5d Collagenous fiber 120 µm Elastic fiber Loose connective tissue
Fig. 40-5e Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue 30 µm
Fig. 40-5f Osteon Central canal Bone 700 µm
Fig. 40-5g Chondrocytes Chondroitin sulfate Cartilage 100 µm
Fig. 40-5h Fat droplets Adipose tissue 150 µm
Fig. 40-5i White blood cells Plasma Red blood cells 55 µm Blood
Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Muscle tissue  consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve sign...
Fig. 40-5j Muscle Tissue 50 µm Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle ...
Fig. 40-5k Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm
Fig. 40-5l Smooth muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm
Fig. 40-5m Nucleus Intercalated disk Cardiac muscle 50 µm
Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Nervous tissue  senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal </li></ul><ul><li>Nervou...
Fig. 40-5n Glial cells Nervous Tissue 15 µm Dendrites Cell body Axon Neuron Axons Blood vessel 40 µm
Fig. 40-5o Dendrites Cell body Axon 40 µm Neuron
Fig. 40-5p Glial cells Axons Blood vessel Glial cells and axons 15 µm
Coordination and Control <ul><li>Control and coordination within a body depend on the endocrine system and the nervous sys...
Fig. 40-6 Stimulus Hormone Endocrine cell Signal travels everywhere via the  bloodstream. Blood vessel Response (a) Signal...
Fig. 40-6a Stimulus Endocrine cell Hormone Signal travels everywhere via the bloodstream. Blood vessel Response (a) Signal...
<ul><li>The nervous system transmits information between specific locations </li></ul><ul><li>The information conveyed dep...
Fig. 40-6b Stimulus Neuron Axon Signal Signal travels along axon to a specific location. Signal Axons Response (b) Signali...
Concept 40.2: Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many animals <ul><li>Animals manage their intern...
<ul><li>A  regulator  uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental ...
Fig. 40-7 River otter (temperature regulator) Largemouth bass (temperature conformer) Body temperature (°C) 0 10 10 20 20 ...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Organisms use  homeostasis  to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external en...
<ul><li>Mechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>For a given variable, flu...
Fig. 40-8 Response: Heater  turned off Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too hot Room temperature decreases Set ...
Feedback Loops in Homeostasis <ul><li>The dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis is maintained by  negative feedback,  which h...
Alterations in Homeostasis <ul><li>Set points and normal ranges can change with age or show cyclic variation </li></ul><ul...
Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior <ul><li>Thermoregulation  is...
<ul><li>Endothermic  animals generate heat by metabolism; birds and mammals are endotherms </li></ul><ul><li>Ectothermic  ...
<ul><li>In general, ectotherms tolerate greater variation in internal temperature, while endotherms are active at a greate...
Fig. 40-9 (a) A walrus, an endotherm (b) A lizard, an ectotherm
Variation in Body Temperature <ul><li>The body temperature of a  poikilotherm  varies with its environment, while that of ...
Balancing Heat Loss and Gain <ul><li>Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes: conduction, convection, radiation...
Fig. 40-10 Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction
<ul><li>Heat regulation in mammals often involves the  integumentary system : skin, hair, and nails  </li></ul>Copyright ©...
Fig. 40-11 Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adipose tissue Blood vessels Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hai...
<ul><li>Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Insulation <ul><li>Insulation is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds </li></ul><ul><li>Skin, feathers...
<ul><li>Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Many endot...
<ul><li>The arrangement of blood vessels in many marine mammals and birds allows for  countercurrent exchange </li></ul><u...
Fig. 40-12 Canada goose Bottlenose dolphin Artery Artery Vein Vein Blood flow 33º 35ºC 27º 30º 18º 20º 10º 9º
<ul><li>Some bony fishes and sharks also use countercurrent heat exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Many endothermic insects have...
Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss <ul><li>Many types of animals lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Both endotherms and ectotherms use behavioral responses to control body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Some terrest...
Fig. 40-13
Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production <ul><li>Some animals can regulate body temperature by adjusting their rate of metaboli...
Fig. 40-14 RESULTS Contractions per minute O 2  consumption (mL O 2 /hr) per kg 0 0 20 20 15 10 5 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 120
Fig. 40-15 PREFLIGHT PREFLIGHT WARM-UP FLIGHT Thorax Abdomen Time from onset of warm-up (min) Temperature (ºC) 0 2 4 25 30...
<ul><li>Birds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes  </li></ul><ul><li>When...
Physiological Thermostats and Fever <ul><li>Thermoregulation is controlled by a region of the brain called the  hypothalam...
Fig. 40-16 Sweat glands secrete sweat, which evaporates, cooling the body. Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling me...
Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment <ul><li>Bioenergetics  is the over...
Energy Allocation and Use <ul><li>Animals harvest chemical energy from food  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy-containing molecules...
Fig. 40-17 Organic molecules in food External environment Animal body Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body ...
<ul><li>Metabolic rate  is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time </li></ul><ul><li>One way to measure it i...
Fig. 40-18
Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation <ul><li>Basal metabolic rate (BMR)  is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at r...
<ul><li>Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm </li></ul><ul>...
Size and Metabolic Rate <ul><li>Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size among similar animals </li></ul>...
Fig. 40-19 Elephant Horse Human Sheep Dog Cat Rat Ground squirrel Mouse Harvest mouse Shrew Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR...
Fig. 40-19a Shrew Harvest mouse Mouse Ground squirrel Rat Cat Dog Sheep Human Horse Elephant Body mass (kg) (log scale) BM...
Fig. 40-19b 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 –1 10 –2 10 –3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Body mass (kg) (log scale) (b) Relationship of BMR per kilo...
<ul><li>Activity greatly affects metabolic rate for endotherms and ectotherms </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the maximum me...
<ul><li>Different species use energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment </li></ul><ul...
Fig. 40-20 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metaboli...
Fig. 40-20a Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabol...
Fig. 40-20b Reproduction Thermoregulation Activity Basal (standard) metabolism 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (b...
Fig. 40-20c Reproduction Thermoregulation Basal (standard) metabolism Activity 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from tempe...
Fig. 40-20d Reproduction Growth Activity Basal (standard) metabolism 4-kg female eastern indigo snake 8,000 Annual energy ...
Torpor and Energy Conservation <ul><li>Torpor  is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases ...
Fig. 40-21 Additional metabolism that would be necessary to stay active in winter Actual metabolism Arousals Body temperat...
<ul><li>Estivation , or summer torpor, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water suppl...
Fig. 40-UN1 Homeostasis Stimulus: Perturbation/stress Response/effector Control center Sensor/receptor
Fig. 40-UN2
You should now be able to: <ul><li>Distinguish among the following sets of terms: collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibe...
<ul><li>Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul><ul><li>Define thermoregulation and explain how e...
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  • Figure 40.1 How does a jackrabbit keep from overheating? For the Discovery Video Human Body, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 40.2 Convergent evolution in fast swimmers
  • Figure 40.3 Contact with the environment
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.5 Structure and function in animal tissues
  • Figure 40.6 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
  • Figure 40.6a Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
  • Figure 40.6b Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems
  • Figure 40.7 The relationship between body and environmental temperatures in an aquatic temperature regulator and an aquatic temperature conformer
  • Figure 40.8 A nonliving example of negative feedback: control of room temperature
  • Figure 40.9 Endothermy and ectothermy
  • Figure 40.10 Heat exchange between an organism and its environment
  • Figure 40.11 Mammalian integumentary system
  • Figure 40.12 Countercurrent heat exchangers
  • Figure 40.13 Thermoregulatory behavior in a dragonfly
  • Figure 40.14 How does a Burmese python generate heat while incubating eggs?
  • Figure 40.15 Preflight warm-up in the hawkmoth
  • Figure 40.16 The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation
  • Figure 40.17 Bioenergetics of an animal: an overview
  • Figure 40.18 Measuring rate of oxygen consumption in a running pronghorn
  • Figure 40.19 The relationship of metabolic rate to body size
  • Figure 40.19 The relationship of metabolic rate to body size
  • Figure 40.19 The relationship of metabolic rate to body size
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.20 Energy budgets for four animals
  • Figure 40.21 Body temperature and metabolism during hibernation in Belding’s ground squirrels
  • OHHS AP Biology Chapter 40 Presentation

    1. 1. Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
    2. 2. Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges <ul><li>Anatomy is the study of the biological form of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology is the study of the biological functions an organism performs </li></ul><ul><li>The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    3. 3. Fig. 40-1
    4. 4. Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization <ul><li>Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its environment </li></ul><ul><li>Many different animal body plans have evolved and are determined by the genome </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    5. 5. Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape <ul><li>The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal’s shape, size, and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary convergence reflects different species’ adaptations to a similar environmental challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Video: Gal á pagos Sea Lion Video: Shark Eating Seal
    6. 6. Fig. 40-2 (a) Tuna (b) Penguin (c) Seal
    7. 7. Exchange with the Environment <ul><li>An animal’s size and shape directly affect how it exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium diffuse and are transported across the cells’ plasma membranes </li></ul><ul><li>A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Video: Hydra Eating Daphnia
    8. 8. Fig. 40-3 Exchange 0.15 mm (a) Single cell 1.5 mm (b) Two layers of cells Exchange Exchange Mouth Gastrovascular cavity
    9. 9. <ul><li>Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    10. 10. <ul><li>More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    11. 11. Fig. 40-4 0.5 cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O 2 Circulatory system Heart Respiratory system Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Kidney tubules 10 µm 50 µm Lung tissue Blood
    12. 12. Fig. 40-4a Nutrients Mouth Digestive system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Excretory system Circulatory system Interstitial fluid Cells Respiratory system Heart Blood Animal body CO 2 O 2 Food External environment
    13. 13. Fig. 40-4b Lining of small intestine 0.5 cm
    14. 14. Fig. 40-4c Lung tissue 50 µm
    15. 15. Fig. 40-4d Kidney tubules 10 µm
    16. 16. <ul><li>In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid , which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells </li></ul><ul><li>A complex body plan helps an animal in a variable environment to maintain a relatively stable internal environment </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    17. 17. <ul><li>Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have different functions </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues make up organs , which together make up organ systems </li></ul>Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    18. 18. Table 40-1
    19. 19. <ul><li>Different tissues have different structures that are suited to their functions </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues are classified into four main categories: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous </li></ul>Tissue Structure and Function Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    20. 20. Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body </li></ul><ul><li>It contains cells that are closely joined </li></ul><ul><li>The shape of epithelial cells may be cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end), or squamous (like floor tiles) </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    21. 21. <ul><li>The arrangement of epithelial cells may be simple (single cell layer), stratified (multiple tiers of cells), or pseudostratified (a single layer of cells of varying length) </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    22. 22. Fig. 40-5a Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium
    23. 23. Fig. 40-5b Apical surface Basal surface Basal lamina 40 µm
    24. 24. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Connective tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues </li></ul><ul><li>It contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><li>The matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    25. 25. <ul><li>There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    26. 26. <ul><li>Connective tissue contains cells, including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages that are involved in the immune system </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    27. 27. <ul><li>In vertebrates, the fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage is a strong and flexible support material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons , which attach muscles to bones, and ligaments , which connect bones at joints </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Adipose tissue stores fat for insulation and fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone is mineralized and forms the skeleton </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    29. 29. Fig. 40-5c Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Elastic fiber 120 µm Cartilage Chondrocytes 100 µm Chondroitin sulfate Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150 µm White blood cells 55 µm Plasma Red blood cells Blood Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue 30 µm Osteon Bone Central canal 700 µm
    30. 30. Fig. 40-5d Collagenous fiber 120 µm Elastic fiber Loose connective tissue
    31. 31. Fig. 40-5e Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue 30 µm
    32. 32. Fig. 40-5f Osteon Central canal Bone 700 µm
    33. 33. Fig. 40-5g Chondrocytes Chondroitin sulfate Cartilage 100 µm
    34. 34. Fig. 40-5h Fat droplets Adipose tissue 150 µm
    35. 35. Fig. 40-5i White blood cells Plasma Red blood cells 55 µm Blood
    36. 36. Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Muscle tissue consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided in the vertebrate body into three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle , or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    37. 37. Fig. 40-5j Muscle Tissue 50 µm Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm Nucleus Intercalated disk
    38. 38. Fig. 40-5k Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm
    39. 39. Fig. 40-5l Smooth muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm
    40. 40. Fig. 40-5m Nucleus Intercalated disk Cardiac muscle 50 µm
    41. 41. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous tissue contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurons , or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glial cells , or glia , that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    42. 42. Fig. 40-5n Glial cells Nervous Tissue 15 µm Dendrites Cell body Axon Neuron Axons Blood vessel 40 µm
    43. 43. Fig. 40-5o Dendrites Cell body Axon 40 µm Neuron
    44. 44. Fig. 40-5p Glial cells Axons Blood vessel Glial cells and axons 15 µm
    45. 45. Coordination and Control <ul><li>Control and coordination within a body depend on the endocrine system and the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine system transmits chemical signals called hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood </li></ul><ul><li>A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    46. 46. Fig. 40-6 Stimulus Hormone Endocrine cell Signal travels everywhere via the bloodstream. Blood vessel Response (a) Signaling by hormones Stimulus Neuron Axon Signal Signal travels along axon to a specific location. Signal Axons Response (b) Signaling by neurons
    47. 47. Fig. 40-6a Stimulus Endocrine cell Hormone Signal travels everywhere via the bloodstream. Blood vessel Response (a) Signaling by hormones
    48. 48. <ul><li>The nervous system transmits information between specific locations </li></ul><ul><li>The information conveyed depends on a signal’s pathway, not the type of signal </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve signal transmission is very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve impulses can be received by neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    49. 49. Fig. 40-6b Stimulus Neuron Axon Signal Signal travels along axon to a specific location. Signal Axons Response (b) Signaling by neurons
    50. 50. Concept 40.2: Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many animals <ul><li>Animals manage their internal environment by regulating or conforming to the external environment </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    51. 51. <ul><li>A regulator uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation </li></ul><ul><li>A conformer allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes </li></ul>Regulating and Conforming Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    52. 52. Fig. 40-7 River otter (temperature regulator) Largemouth bass (temperature conformer) Body temperature (°C) 0 10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 Ambient (environmental) temperature (ºC)
    53. 53. Homeostasis <ul><li>Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, body temperature, blood pH, and glucose concentration are each maintained at a constant level </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    54. 54. <ul><li>Mechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>For a given variable, fluctuations above or below a set point serve as a stimulus ; these are detected by a sensor and trigger a response </li></ul><ul><li>The response returns the variable to the set point </li></ul>Mechanisms of Homeostasis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Animation: Positive Feedback Animation: Negative Feedback
    55. 55. Fig. 40-8 Response: Heater turned off Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too hot Room temperature decreases Set point: 20ºC Room temperature increases Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too cold Response: Heater turned on
    56. 56. Feedback Loops in Homeostasis <ul><li>The dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback, which helps to return a variable to either a normal range or a set point </li></ul><ul><li>Most homeostatic control systems function by negative feedback, where buildup of the end product shuts the system off </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback loops occur in animals, but do not usually contribute to homeostasis </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    57. 57. Alterations in Homeostasis <ul><li>Set points and normal ranges can change with age or show cyclic variation </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis can adjust to changes in external environment, a process called acclimatization </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    58. 58. Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior <ul><li>Thermoregulation is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    59. 59. <ul><li>Endothermic animals generate heat by metabolism; birds and mammals are endotherms </li></ul><ul><li>Ectothermic animals gain heat from external sources; ectotherms include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles </li></ul>Endothermy and Ectothermy Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    60. 60. <ul><li>In general, ectotherms tolerate greater variation in internal temperature, while endotherms are active at a greater range of external temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermy is more energetically expensive than ectothermy </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    61. 61. Fig. 40-9 (a) A walrus, an endotherm (b) A lizard, an ectotherm
    62. 62. Variation in Body Temperature <ul><li>The body temperature of a poikilotherm varies with its environment, while that of a homeotherm is relatively constant </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    63. 63. Balancing Heat Loss and Gain <ul><li>Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes: conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    64. 64. Fig. 40-10 Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction
    65. 65. <ul><li>Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system : skin, hair, and nails </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    66. 66. Fig. 40-11 Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adipose tissue Blood vessels Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hair follicle
    67. 67. <ul><li>Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling by evaporative heat loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting metabolic heat production </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    68. 68. Insulation <ul><li>Insulation is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds </li></ul><ul><li>Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow between an animal and its environment </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    69. 69. <ul><li>Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Many endotherms and some ectotherms can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin </li></ul><ul><li>In vasodilation, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss </li></ul>Circulatory Adaptations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    70. 70. <ul><li>The arrangement of blood vessels in many marine mammals and birds allows for countercurrent exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Countercurrent heat exchangers transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions </li></ul><ul><li>Countercurrent heat exchangers are an important mechanism for reducing heat loss </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    71. 71. Fig. 40-12 Canada goose Bottlenose dolphin Artery Artery Vein Vein Blood flow 33º 35ºC 27º 30º 18º 20º 10º 9º
    72. 72. <ul><li>Some bony fishes and sharks also use countercurrent heat exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Many endothermic insects have countercurrent heat exchangers that help maintain a high temperature in the thorax </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    73. 73. Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss <ul><li>Many types of animals lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat </li></ul><ul><li>Panting increases the cooling effect in birds and many mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helping to cool an animal down </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    74. 74. <ul><li>Both endotherms and ectotherms use behavioral responses to control body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Some terrestrial invertebrates have postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat </li></ul>Behavioral Responses Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    75. 75. Fig. 40-13
    76. 76. Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production <ul><li>Some animals can regulate body temperature by adjusting their rate of metabolic heat production </li></ul><ul><li>Heat production is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering </li></ul><ul><li>Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    77. 77. Fig. 40-14 RESULTS Contractions per minute O 2 consumption (mL O 2 /hr) per kg 0 0 20 20 15 10 5 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 120
    78. 78. Fig. 40-15 PREFLIGHT PREFLIGHT WARM-UP FLIGHT Thorax Abdomen Time from onset of warm-up (min) Temperature (ºC) 0 2 4 25 30 35 40
    79. 79. <ul><li>Birds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes </li></ul><ul><li>When temperatures are subzero, some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells </li></ul>Acclimatization in Thermoregulation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    80. 80. Physiological Thermostats and Fever <ul><li>Thermoregulation is controlled by a region of the brain called the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Fever is the result of a change to the set point for a biological thermostat </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    81. 81. Fig. 40-16 Sweat glands secrete sweat, which evaporates, cooling the body. Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms. Blood vessels in skin dilate: capillaries fill; heat radiates from skin. Increased body temperature Decreased body temperature Thermostat in hypothalamus activates warming mechanisms. Blood vessels in skin constrict, reducing heat loss. Skeletal muscles contract; shivering generates heat. Body temperature increases; thermostat shuts off warming mechanisms. Homeostasis: Internal temperature of 36–38°C Body temperature decreases; thermostat shuts off cooling mechanisms.
    82. 82. Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment <ul><li>Bioenergetics is the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal </li></ul><ul><li>It determines how much food an animal needs and relates to an animal’s size, activity, and environment </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    83. 83. Energy Allocation and Use <ul><li>Animals harvest chemical energy from food </li></ul><ul><li>Energy-containing molecules from food are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work </li></ul><ul><li>After the needs of staying alive are met, remaining food molecules can be used in biosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Biosynthesis includes body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material such as fat, and production of gametes </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    84. 84. Fig. 40-17 Organic molecules in food External environment Animal body Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body cells Carbon skeletons Cellular respiration ATP Heat Energy lost in feces Energy lost in nitrogenous waste Heat Biosynthesis Heat Heat Cellular work
    85. 85. <ul><li>Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time </li></ul><ul><li>One way to measure it is to determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced </li></ul>Quantifying Energy Use Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    86. 86. Fig. 40-18
    87. 87. Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation <ul><li>Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Both rates assume a nongrowing, fasting, and nonstressed animal </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms have much lower metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    88. 88. <ul><li>Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm </li></ul><ul><li>Two of these factors are size and activity </li></ul>Influences on Metabolic Rate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    89. 89. Size and Metabolic Rate <ul><li>Metabolic rate per gram is inversely related to body size among similar animals </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers continue to search for the causes of this relationship </li></ul><ul><li>The higher metabolic rate of smaller animals leads to a higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    90. 90. Fig. 40-19 Elephant Horse Human Sheep Dog Cat Rat Ground squirrel Mouse Harvest mouse Shrew Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR (L O 2 /hr) (Iog scale) 10 –3 10 –2 10 –2 10 –1 10 –1 10 10 1 1 10 2 10 2 10 3 10 3 (a) Relationship of BMR to body size Shrew Mouse Harvest mouse Sheep Rat Cat Dog Human Horse Elephant BMR (L O 2 /hr) (per kg) Ground squirrel Body mass (kg) (log scale) 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1 10 10 2 10 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 (b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size
    91. 91. Fig. 40-19a Shrew Harvest mouse Mouse Ground squirrel Rat Cat Dog Sheep Human Horse Elephant Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR (L O 2 /hr) (log scale) (a) Relationship of BMR to body size 10 –3 10 –2 10 –2 10 –1 10 –1 1 1 10 10 2 10 3 10 10 2 10 3
    92. 92. Fig. 40-19b 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 –1 10 –2 10 –3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Body mass (kg) (log scale) (b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size BMR (L O2/hr) (per kg) Shrew Harvest mouse Mouse Rat Ground squirrel Cat Sheep Dog Human Horse Elephant
    93. 93. <ul><li>Activity greatly affects metabolic rate for endotherms and ectotherms </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the maximum metabolic rate an animal can sustain is inversely related to the duration of the activity </li></ul>Activity and Metabolic Rate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    94. 94. <ul><li>Different species use energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction </li></ul>Energy Budgets Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    95. 95. Fig. 40-20 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabolism Reproduction Thermoregulation Growth Activity 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female eastern indigo snake Endotherms Ectotherm
    96. 96. Fig. 40-20a Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabolism Reproduction Thermoregulation Growth Activity
    97. 97. Fig. 40-20b Reproduction Thermoregulation Activity Basal (standard) metabolism 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr) 340,000
    98. 98. Fig. 40-20c Reproduction Thermoregulation Basal (standard) metabolism Activity 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from temperate North America Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr)
    99. 99. Fig. 40-20d Reproduction Growth Activity Basal (standard) metabolism 4-kg female eastern indigo snake 8,000 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr)
    100. 100. Torpor and Energy Conservation <ul><li>Torpor is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Torpor enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Hibernation is long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    101. 101. Fig. 40-21 Additional metabolism that would be necessary to stay active in winter Actual metabolism Arousals Body temperature Outside temperature Burrow temperature Metabolic rate (kcal per day) Temperature (°C) June August October December February April – 15 – 10 – 5 0 5 15 10 25 20 35 30 0 100 200
    102. 102. <ul><li>Estivation , or summer torpor, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Daily torpor is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems adapted to feeding patterns </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    103. 103. Fig. 40-UN1 Homeostasis Stimulus: Perturbation/stress Response/effector Control center Sensor/receptor
    104. 104. Fig. 40-UN2
    105. 105. You should now be able to: <ul><li>Distinguish among the following sets of terms: collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers; regulator and conformer; positive and negative feedback; basal and standard metabolic rates; torpor, hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor </li></ul><ul><li>Relate structure with function and identify diagrams of the following animal tissues: epithelial, connective tissue (six types), muscle tissue (three types), and nervous tissue </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    106. 106. <ul><li>Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul><ul><li>Define thermoregulation and explain how endotherms and ectotherms manage their heat budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how a countercurrent heat exchanger may function to retain heat within an animal body </li></ul><ul><li>Define bioenergetics and biosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals </li></ul>Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
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