Basic Principles of Animal Form & Function Chapter 40
Anatomy & Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul...
Physical constraints  <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapes of animals that are swimmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W...
Exchange with the environment <ul><li>Rate of exchange proportional to surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of materials ...
Fig. 40-4 0.5 cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O 2...
Hierarchical Organization <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System ...
Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Sheets of tightly packed cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells joined tightly together with little mater...
Classification of Epithelial tissue  <ul><li>Number of cell layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple epithelial </li></ul></ul>...
Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epit...
Connective Tissue <ul><li>Cells spread out scattered through extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substances secrete...
Classification of connective tissue <ul><li>Collagenous fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Loose Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widespread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralized connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ost...
Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Adipose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue </...
Connective Tissue Fig. 40-5c Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Elastic fiber 120 µm Cartilage Ch...
Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Contract when stimulated </li></ul><ul><li>Contractile proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actin & myosin...
Fig. 40-5j Muscle Tissue 50 µm Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle ...
Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Receives stimulus and transmits signals </li></ul><ul><li>Glial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourish...
Fig. 40-5n Glial cells Nervous Tissue 15 µm Dendrites Cell body Axon Neuron Axons Blood vessel 40 µm
Coordination and Control in Animals <ul><li>Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling molecules in bloodstream </li...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in environment triggers control mechanism to turn off s...
Fig. 40-UN1 Homeostasis Stimulus: Perturbation/stress Response/effector Control center Sensor/receptor
Thermoregulation <ul><li>Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul>...
Fig. 40-12 Canada goose Bottlenose dolphin Artery Artery Vein Vein Blood flow 33º 35ºC 27º 30º 18º 20º 10º 9º
Metabolic Rate <ul><li>Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in calories or Joules ...
Fig. 40-17 Organic molecules in food External environment Animal body Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body ...
Fig. 40-20 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metaboli...
Metabolic rate (cont) <ul><li>Metabolic rate is inversely proportional to body size </li></ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate...
Metabolic Rate (cont) <ul><li>Maximum metabolic rate = peak activity times </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum rate = inversely prop...
Fig. 40-19 Elephant Horse Human Sheep Dog Cat Rat Ground squirrel Mouse Harvest mouse Shrew Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR...
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OHHS AP Biology Chapter 40 (Class Presentation)

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OHHS AP Biology Chapter 40 (Class Presentation)

  1. 1. Basic Principles of Animal Form & Function Chapter 40
  2. 2. Anatomy & Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do animals have such various appearances when they have such similar demands placed on them? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical constraints <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapes of animals that are swimmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why streamlined? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relation to speed of organism </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Exchange with the environment <ul><li>Rate of exchange proportional to surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of materials that must be exchanged is proportional to volume </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in unicellular vs. multicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial fluid </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fig. 40-4 0.5 cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O 2 Circulatory system Heart Respiratory system Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Kidney tubules 10 µm 50 µm Lung tissue Blood
  6. 6. Hierarchical Organization <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive Circulatory Respiratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune Excretory Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive Nervous Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular Integumentary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>
  7. 7. Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Sheets of tightly packed cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells joined tightly together with little material between them </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption or secretion of chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lining of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed to air or fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basement membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular matrix that cells at base of barrier are attached </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Classification of Epithelial tissue <ul><li>Number of cell layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single layer of cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple tiers of cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single-layered but appears stratified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shape of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuboidal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columnar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium
  10. 10. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Cells spread out scattered through extracellular matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substances secreted by connective tissue cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web of fibers embedded in foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind and support other cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete protein of extracellular fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engulf bacteria & dead cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Classification of connective tissue <ul><li>Collagenous fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonelastic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not tear easily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long threads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of elastin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubbery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very thin and branched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightly woven fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Loose Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widespread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All 3 fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind epithelium & hold organs in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrous Connective Tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly collagenous fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonelastic strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons and ligaments </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralized connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard mineral and flexible collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concentric layers of mineralized matrix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly collagenous fibers in rubbery matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant in embryo skeletons </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Adipose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cushions, insulates, stores fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid extracellular matrix (plasma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Connective Tissue Fig. 40-5c Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Elastic fiber 120 µm Cartilage Chondrocytes 100 µm Chondroitin sulfate Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150 µm White blood cells 55 µm Plasma Red blood cells Blood Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue 30 µm Osteon Bone Central canal 700 µm
  16. 16. Muscle Tissue <ul><li>Contract when stimulated </li></ul><ul><li>Contractile proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actin & myosin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striated, intercalated discs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No striations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines walls of organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fig. 40-5j Muscle Tissue 50 µm Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm Nucleus Intercalated disk
  18. 18. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Receives stimulus and transmits signals </li></ul><ul><li>Glial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nourish, insulate, replenish neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell body with 2 or more extensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Axons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit signals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive signals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Fig. 40-5n Glial cells Nervous Tissue 15 µm Dendrites Cell body Axon Neuron Axons Blood vessel 40 µm
  20. 20. Coordination and Control in Animals <ul><li>Endocrine System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling molecules in bloodstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates gradual changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth, development, reproduction, digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only picked up by cells with the correct receptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow acting but long lasting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impulse travels along target cell only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission is very fast and short lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotion, behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Homeostasis <ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in environment triggers control mechanism to turn off stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent small changes to become big problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most body processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in environment triggers control mechanism to increase stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Childbirth </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fig. 40-UN1 Homeostasis Stimulus: Perturbation/stress Response/effector Control center Sensor/receptor
  23. 23. Thermoregulation <ul><li>Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling by evaporative heat loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting metabolic heat production </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Fig. 40-12 Canada goose Bottlenose dolphin Artery Artery Vein Vein Blood flow 33º 35ºC 27º 30º 18º 20º 10º 9º
  25. 25. Metabolic Rate <ul><li>Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in calories or Joules </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated – heat loss, O 2 consumed, CO 2 produced, food consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Endothermic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm-blooded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat generated by metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires lots of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exothermic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold-blooded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires less energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incapable of intense activity for long period of time </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Fig. 40-17 Organic molecules in food External environment Animal body Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body cells Carbon skeletons Cellular respiration ATP Heat Energy lost in feces Energy lost in nitrogenous waste Heat Biosynthesis Heat Heat Cellular work
  27. 27. Fig. 40-20 Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabolism Reproduction Thermoregulation Growth Activity 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female eastern indigo snake Endotherms Ectotherm
  28. 28. Metabolic rate (cont) <ul><li>Metabolic rate is inversely proportional to body size </li></ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic rate of nongrowing endotherm at rest, empty stomach, no stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human average = 1600 – 1800 kCal per day for males; 1300-1500 kCal per day for females </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic rate of resting, fasting, non-stressed ectotherm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alligator = 60 kCal per day </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Metabolic Rate (cont) <ul><li>Maximum metabolic rate = peak activity times </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum rate = inversely proportional to duration of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained activity depends on ATP supply and respiration rate </li></ul><ul><li>Age, sex, size, temperature, quality & quantity of food, activity level, oxygen availability, hormonal balance, time of day all affect metabolic rate </li></ul>
  30. 30. Fig. 40-19 Elephant Horse Human Sheep Dog Cat Rat Ground squirrel Mouse Harvest mouse Shrew Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR (L O 2 /hr) (Iog scale) 10 –3 10 –2 10 –2 10 –1 10 –1 10 10 1 1 10 2 10 2 10 3 10 3 (a) Relationship of BMR to body size Shrew Mouse Harvest mouse Sheep Rat Cat Dog Human Horse Elephant BMR (L O 2 /hr) (per kg) Ground squirrel Body mass (kg) (log scale) 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1 10 10 2 10 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 (b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size

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