Protein Synthesis           Making ProteinsBiology
Bodies  Cells  DNA Bodies are made up of cells All cells run on a set of instructions  spelled out in DNA
DNA  Cells  Bodies How does DNA code for cells & bodies?     how are cells and bodies made from the      instructions ...
DNA  Proteins  Cells  Bodies DNA has the information to build proteins     genes                  proteins           ...
How do proteins do all the work Proteins   proteins run living organisms   enzymes       control all chemical reaction...
Cell organization DNA      DNA is in the nucleus         genes = instructions for making proteins      want to keep it...
Cell organization Proteins     chains of amino acids     made by a “protein factory” in cytoplasm     protein factory ...
Passing on DNA information  Need to get DNA gene information  from nucleus to cytoplasm      need a copy of DNA      me...
From nucleus to cytoplasm      transcriptionDNA               mRNA             protein                         translation...
DNA vs. RNA          DNA                   RNA deoxyribose sugar    ribose sugar nitrogen bases       nitrogen bases  ...
Transcription  Making mRNA from DNA  DNA strand is the  template (pattern)      match bases       U:A       G:C  Enz...
Matching bases of DNA & RNA  Double stranded DNA unzips  T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T
Matching bases of DNA & RNA  Double stranded DNA unzips  T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T
Matching bases of DNA & RNA                                                           A  Match RNA bases to DNA G        ...
Matching bases of DNA & RNA  U instead of T is matched to ADNA   TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG   AUGCGUGUAAAUGCAUGCGCCmRNA       ...
cytoplasm                                               proteinnucleus                                            ribosome...
How does mRNA code for proteins  mRNA leaves nucleus  mRNA goes to ribosomes in cytoplasm  Proteins built from instruct...
How does mRNA code for proteins? DNA   TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG                                              ribosome   AUGCG...
mRNA codes for proteins in triplets DNA   TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG          codon                    ribosome   AUGCGUGUAAAUG...
The mRNA code For ALL life!      strongest support       for a common origin       for all life Code has duplicates   ...
How are the codons matched toamino acids?DNA     TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG   AUGCGUGUAAAUGCAUGCGCCmRNA                        ...
mRNA to protein = Translation   The working instructions  mRNA   The reader  ribosome   The transporter  transfer RN...
From gene to protein                                                         aa                                           ...
cytoplasm                                          protein      transcription         translationnucleus                  ...
From gene to protein                       protein   transcription                   translation
Whoops!           See what happens when          your genes don’t work right!               Any Questions??Biology        ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Honors - Protein Synthesis

2,586

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,586
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Honors - Protein Synthesis

  1. 1. Protein Synthesis Making ProteinsBiology
  2. 2. Bodies  Cells  DNA Bodies are made up of cells All cells run on a set of instructions spelled out in DNA
  3. 3. DNA  Cells  Bodies How does DNA code for cells & bodies?  how are cells and bodies made from the instructions in DNA
  4. 4. DNA  Proteins  Cells  Bodies DNA has the information to build proteins  genes proteins cells DNA gets all the glory, Proteins do all the work bodies
  5. 5. How do proteins do all the work Proteins  proteins run living organisms  enzymes  control all chemical reactions in living organisms  structure  all living organisms are built out of proteins
  6. 6. Cell organization DNA  DNA is in the nucleus  genes = instructions for making proteins  want to keep it there = protected  “locked in the vault” cytoplasm nucleus
  7. 7. Cell organization Proteins  chains of amino acids  made by a “protein factory” in cytoplasm  protein factory = ribosome cytoplasm build proteins nucleus ribosome
  8. 8. Passing on DNA information  Need to get DNA gene information from nucleus to cytoplasm  need a copy of DNA  messenger RNA cytoplasm build proteins mRNA nucleus ribosome
  9. 9. From nucleus to cytoplasm transcriptionDNA mRNA protein translation trait nucleus cytoplasm
  10. 10. DNA vs. RNA DNA RNA deoxyribose sugar  ribose sugar nitrogen bases  nitrogen bases  G, C, A, T  G, C, A, U  T:A  U:A  C:G  C:G double stranded  single stranded
  11. 11. Transcription  Making mRNA from DNA  DNA strand is the template (pattern)  match bases U:A G:C  Enzyme  RNA polymerase
  12. 12. Matching bases of DNA & RNA  Double stranded DNA unzips T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T
  13. 13. Matching bases of DNA & RNA  Double stranded DNA unzips T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T
  14. 14. Matching bases of DNA & RNA A  Match RNA bases to DNA G C U bases on one of the DNA G A strands U G C U U C G A A C U A AG C U A RNA G A C C polymerase T G G T A C A G C T A G T C A T CG T A C CG T
  15. 15. Matching bases of DNA & RNA  U instead of T is matched to ADNA TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG AUGCGUGUAAAUGCAUGCGCCmRNA ribosome A C C A U G U C G A U C A G U A G C A U G G C A
  16. 16. cytoplasm proteinnucleus ribosome A C C A U G U C G A U C A G U A G C A U G G C A trait
  17. 17. How does mRNA code for proteins  mRNA leaves nucleus  mRNA goes to ribosomes in cytoplasm  Proteins built from instructions on mRNA How? mRNA A C C A U G U C G A U C A GU A GC A U G GC A aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa
  18. 18. How does mRNA code for proteins? DNA TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG ribosome AUGCGUGUAAAUGCAUGCGCCmRNA ?protein Met ArgVal AsnAla Cys Ala aa aa aa aa aa aa aa aa How can you code for 20 amino acids with only 4 DNA bases (A,U,G,C)?
  19. 19. mRNA codes for proteins in triplets DNA TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG codon ribosome AUGCGUGUAAAUGCAUGCGCCmRNA ?protein Met ArgVal AsnAla Cys Ala  Codon = block of 3 mRNA bases
  20. 20. The mRNA code For ALL life!  strongest support for a common origin for all life Code has duplicates  several codons for each amino acid  mutation insurance! Start codon  AUG  methionine Stop codons  UGA, UAA, UAG
  21. 21. How are the codons matched toamino acids?DNA TACGCACATTTACGTACGCGG AUGCGUGUAAAUGCAUGCGCCmRNA codon UACtRNA GCA CAU anti-codon Metamino Arg acid Val  Anti-codon = block of 3 tRNA bases
  22. 22. mRNA to protein = Translation  The working instructions  mRNA  The reader  ribosome  The transporter  transfer RNA (tRNA) ribosome mRNA A C C A U G U C G A U C A GU A GC A U G GC A U GG tRNA U A C A G Caa tRNA aa tRNA U A G aa aa tRNA aa aa
  23. 23. From gene to protein aa aa transcription translation aaDNA mRNA protein aa aa aa aa ribosome A C C A U G U C G A U C A GU A GC A U GGC A tRNA nucleus cytoplasm aa trait
  24. 24. cytoplasm protein transcription translationnucleus trait
  25. 25. From gene to protein protein transcription translation
  26. 26. Whoops! See what happens when your genes don’t work right! Any Questions??Biology 2009-2010
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×