Honors Biology - Macromolecules (Slide Builds)

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Honors Biology - Macromolecules (Slide Builds)

  1. 1. The Chemistry of Life What are livingcreatures made of? Why do we have to eat? 1
  2. 2. Elements of Life 2
  3. 3. Elements of Life § 96% of living organisms is made of: 2
  4. 4. Elements of Life § 96% of living organisms is made of: n carbon (C) 2
  5. 5. Elements of Life § 96% of living organisms is made of: n carbon (C) n oxygen (O) 2
  6. 6. Elements of Life § 96% of living organisms is made of: n carbon (C) n oxygen (O) n hydrogen (H) 2
  7. 7. Elements of Life § 96% of living organisms is made of: n carbon (C) n oxygen (O) n hydrogen (H) n nitrogen (N) 2
  8. 8. Molecules of Life 3
  9. 9. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms 3
  10. 10. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? 3
  11. 11. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? u carbohydrates 3
  12. 12. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? u carbohydrates § sugars & starches 3
  13. 13. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? u carbohydrates § sugars & starches u proteins 3
  14. 14. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? u carbohydrates § sugars & starches u proteins u fats (lipids) 3
  15. 15. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? u carbohydrates § sugars & starches u proteins u fats (lipids) u nucleic acids 3
  16. 16. Molecules of Life § Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms § What are bodies made of? u carbohydrates § sugars & starches u proteins u fats (lipids) u nucleic acids § DNA, RNA 3
  17. 17. Why do we eat? 4
  18. 18. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals 4
  19. 19. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials 4
  20. 20. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) 4
  21. 21. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth 4
  22. 22. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth § for repair 4
  23. 23. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth § for repair u Food to make energy 4
  24. 24. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth § for repair u Food to make energy § calories 4
  25. 25. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth § for repair u Food to make energy § calories § to make ATP 4
  26. 26. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth § for repair u Food to make energy ATP § calories § to make ATP 4
  27. 27. Why do we eat? § We eat to take in more of these chemicals u Food for building materials § to make more of us (cells) § for growth § for repair u Food to make energy § calories § to make ATP 4
  28. 28. What do we need to eat? 5
  29. 29. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy 5
  30. 30. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies 5
  31. 31. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies u carbohydrates u proteins 5
  32. 32. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies u carbohydrates u proteins u fats 5
  33. 33. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies u carbohydrates u proteins u fats u nucleic acids 5
  34. 34. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies u carbohydrates u proteins u fats u nucleic acids u vitamins 5
  35. 35. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies u carbohydrates u proteins u fats u nucleic acids u vitamins u minerals, salts 5
  36. 36. What do we need to eat? § Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy § for building & running bodies u carbohydrates u proteins u fats u nucleic acids u vitamins u minerals, salts u water 5
  37. 37. Don’t forget water 6
  38. 38. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O 6
  39. 39. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon 6
  40. 40. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon § Rest of you is made of carbon molecules 6
  41. 41. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon § Rest of you is made of carbon molecules u organic molecules 6
  42. 42. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon § Rest of you is made of carbon molecules u organic molecules § carbohydrates 6
  43. 43. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon § Rest of you is made of carbon molecules u organic molecules § carbohydrates § proteins 6
  44. 44. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon § Rest of you is made of carbon molecules u organic molecules § carbohydrates § proteins § fats 6
  45. 45. Don’t forget water § Water u 65% of your body is H2O u water is inorganic § doesn’t contain carbon § Rest of you is made of carbon molecules u organic molecules § carbohydrates § proteins § fats § nucleic acids 6
  46. 46. How do we make these molecules? 2006-2007 7
  47. 47. How do we make these molecules? We build them! 2006-2007 7
  48. 48. Building large molecules of life 8
  49. 49. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  50. 50. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  51. 51. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  52. 52. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  53. 53. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  54. 54. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  55. 55. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  56. 56. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  57. 57. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  58. 58. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  59. 59. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers 8
  60. 60. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers § Big molecules built from little molecules 8
  61. 61. Building large molecules of life § Chain together smaller molecules u building block molecules = monomers § Big molecules built from little molecules u polymers 8
  62. 62. Building large organic molecules § Small molecules = building blocks § Bond them together = polymers 9
  63. 63. Building large organic molecules § Small molecules = building blocks § Bond them together = polymers 9
  64. 64. Building large organic molecules § Small molecules = building blocks § Bond them together = polymers 9
  65. 65. Building large organic molecules § Small molecules = building blocks § Bond them together = polymers 9
  66. 66. Building important polymers 10
  67. 67. Building important polymersCarbohydrates = built from sugars 10
  68. 68. Building important polymersCarbohydrates = built from sugarssugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar 10
  69. 69. Building important polymersCarbohydrates = built from sugarssugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugarProteins = built from amino acids 10
  70. 70. Building important polymersCarbohydrates = built from sugarssugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugarProteins = built from amino acidsamino amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid – acid 10
  71. 71. Building important polymersCarbohydrates = built from sugarssugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugarProteins = built from amino acidsamino amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid – acidNucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides 10
  72. 72. Building important polymersCarbohydrates = built from sugarssugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugarProteins = built from amino acidsamino amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid – acidNucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotidesnucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide 10
  73. 73. How to build large molecules 11
  74. 74. How to build large molecules § Synthesis 11
  75. 75. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules 11
  76. 76. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules + 11
  77. 77. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules + 11
  78. 78. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules + 11
  79. 79. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules u building cells & bodies § repair § growth § reproduction + 11
  80. 80. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules u building cells & bodies § repair § growth § reproduction + ATP 11
  81. 81. How to build large molecules § Synthesis u building bigger molecules from smaller molecules u building cells & bodies § repair § growth § reproduction + 11
  82. 82. How to build a polymer H 2O HO H HO H HO H 12
  83. 83. How to build a polymer § Synthesis u joins monomers by “taking” H2O out § one monomer donates OH– § other monomer donates H+ § together these form H2O H 2O u requires energy & enzymes HO H HO H HO H 12
  84. 84. How to build a polymer § Synthesis u joins monomers by “taking” H2O out § one monomer donates OH– § other monomer donates H+ § together these form H2O H 2O u requires energy & enzymes HO H HO HDehydration synthesis HO H 12
  85. 85. How to build a polymer § Synthesis u joins monomers by “taking” H2O out § one monomer donates OH– § other monomer donates H+ § together these form H2O H 2O u requires energy & enzymes HO H HO HDehydration synthesisCondensation reaction HO H 12
  86. 86. How to build a polymer § Synthesis u joins monomers by “taking” H2O out § one monomer donates OH– § other monomer donates H+ § together these form H2O H 2O u requires energy & enzymes HO H HO H enzymeDehydration synthesisCondensation reaction HO H 12
  87. 87. How to take large molecules apart 13
  88. 88. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion 13
  89. 89. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart 13
  90. 90. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart 13
  91. 91. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart 13
  92. 92. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart + 13
  93. 93. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart + 13
  94. 94. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart u getting raw materials § for synthesis & growth + 13
  95. 95. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart u getting raw materials § for synthesis & growth u making energy (ATP) § for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + 13
  96. 96. How to take large molecules apart § Digestion u taking big molecules apart u getting raw materials § for synthesis & growth u making energy (ATP) § for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATP 13
  97. 97. How to break down a polymer H 2O HO H HO H HO H 14
  98. 98. How to break down a polymer§ Digestion u use H2O to breakdown polymers § reverse of dehydration synthesis § break off one monomer at a time § H2O is split into H+ and OH– w H+ & OH– attach to ends H 2O u requires enzymes HO H u releases energy HO H HO H 14
  99. 99. How to break down a polymer§ Digestion u use H2O to breakdown polymers § reverse of dehydration synthesis § break off one monomer at a time § H2O is split into H+ and OH– w H+ & OH– attach to ends H 2O u requires enzymes HO H u releases energy Hydrolysis HO H HO H 14
  100. 100. How to break down a polymer§ Digestion u use H2O to breakdown polymers § reverse of dehydration synthesis § break off one monomer at a time § H2O is split into H+ and OH– w H+ & OH– attach to ends H 2O u requires enzymes HO H u releases energy Hydrolysis Digestion HO H HO H 14
  101. 101. How to break down a polymer§ Digestion u use H2O to breakdown polymers § reverse of dehydration synthesis § break off one monomer at a time § H2O is split into H+ and OH– w H+ & OH– attach to ends H 2O u requires enzymes HO H u releases energy enzyme Hydrolysis Digestion HO H HO H 14
  102. 102. Example of digestion 15
  103. 103. Example of digestion 15
  104. 104. Example of digestion 15
  105. 105. Example of digestion starch 15
  106. 106. Example of digestion starch 15
  107. 107. Example of digestion starch 15
  108. 108. Example of digestion starch 15
  109. 109. Example of digestion starch 15
  110. 110. Example of digestion starch 15
  111. 111. Example of digestion starch 15
  112. 112. Example of digestion starch glucose 15
  113. 113. Example of digestion ATP starch glucose 15
  114. 114. Example of digestion ATP ATP starch glucose 15
  115. 115. Example of digestion ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP starch glucose 15
  116. 116. Example of digestion ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP starch glucose ATP 15
  117. 117. Example of digestion starch glucose 15
  118. 118. Example of digestion starch glucose§ Starch is digested to glucose 15
  119. 119. Example of synthesis 16
  120. 120. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  121. 121. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  122. 122. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  123. 123. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  124. 124. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  125. 125. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  126. 126. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  127. 127. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  128. 128. Example of synthesis amino acids 16
  129. 129. Example of synthesis amino acids protein 16
  130. 130. Example of synthesis amino acids protein 16
  131. 131. Example of synthesis amino acids protein amino acids = building block 16
  132. 132. Example of synthesis amino acids protein amino acids = building block protein = polymer 16
  133. 133. Example of synthesis amino acids protein§ Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids amino acids = building block protein = polymer 16
  134. 134. 17
  135. 135. Carbohydrates 17
  136. 136. CH2OH H O H H OH HHO OH H OH 18
  137. 137. CH2OH H O H H OH H HO OH H OHCarbohydrates: 18
  138. 138. CH2OH H O H H OH H HO OH H OHCarbohydrates:Energy molecules 18
  139. 139. Carbohydrates 19
  140. 140. Carbohydrates 19
  141. 141. Carbohydrates§ Building block molecules = 19
  142. 142. Carbohydrates§ Building block molecules = sugars 19
  143. 143. Carbohydrates§ Building block molecules = sugars sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar 19
  144. 144. Carbohydrates§ Building block molecules = sugars sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar 19
  145. 145. Carbohydrates glucose C6H12O6 sucrose starch 20
  146. 146. Carbohydrates § Function: glucose C6H12O6 sucrose starch 20
  147. 147. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose C6H12O6 sucrose starch 20
  148. 148. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 sucrose starch 20
  149. 149. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 u structure sucrose starch 20
  150. 150. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 u structure § cell wall in plants sucrose starch 20
  151. 151. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 u structure § cell wall in plants sucrose§ Examples starch 20
  152. 152. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 u structure § cell wall in plants sucrose§ Examples u sugars starch 20
  153. 153. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 u structure § cell wall in plants sucrose§ Examples u sugars u starches starch 20
  154. 154. Carbohydrates § Function: u quick energy glucose u energy storage C6H12O6 u structure § cell wall in plants sucrose§ Examples u sugars u starches u cellulose (cell wall) starch 20
  155. 155. Sugars = building blocks 21
  156. 156. Sugars = building blocks -ose 21
  157. 157. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose 21
  158. 158. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH H O H H OH H HO OH H OH glucose C6H12O6 21
  159. 159. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose H O H H OH H HO OH H OH glucose C6H12O6 21
  160. 160. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose H O H H OH H HO OH H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose 21
  161. 161. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose O u fructose H H H OH H HO OH H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose 21
  162. 162. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose O u fructose H H H OH H HO OH H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose sucrose 21
  163. 163. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose O u fructose H H H OH H u sucrose HO OH H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose sucrose 21
  164. 164. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose O u fructose H H H OH H u sucrose HO OH u maltose H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose sucrose 21
  165. 165. Sugars = building blocks § Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH u glucose O u fructose H H H OH H u sucrose HO OH u maltose H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose sucrose maltose 21
  166. 166. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 22
  167. 167. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis | glucose 22
  168. 168. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis | | glucose glucose 22
  169. 169. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | glucose glucose 22
  170. 170. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | | glucose glucose maltose 22
  171. 171. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = 2 sugars = monosaccharide disaccharide | | | glucose glucose maltose 22
  172. 172. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = 2 sugars = monosaccharide disaccharide | | | glucose glucose maltose 22
  173. 173. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = 2 sugars = monosaccharide disaccharide | | | glucose glucose maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two 22
  174. 174. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 23
  175. 175. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis | glucose 23
  176. 176. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis | | glucose fructose 23
  177. 177. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | glucose fructose 23
  178. 178. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | glucose fructose 23
  179. 179. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | | glucose fructose sucrose (table sugar) 23
  180. 180. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | | glucose fructose sucrose (table sugar) 23
  181. 181. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = monosaccharide | | | glucose fructose sucrose (table sugar) 23
  182. 182. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = 2 sugars = monosaccharide disaccharide | | | glucose fructose sucrose (table sugar) 23
  183. 183. Building carbohydrates § Synthesis 1 sugar = 2 sugars = monosaccharide disaccharide | | | glucose fructose sucrose How sweet (table sugar) it is! 23
  184. 184. BIG carbohydrates 24
  185. 185. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides 24
  186. 186. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates 24
  187. 187. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates 24
  188. 188. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch 24
  189. 189. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants 24
  190. 190. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes 24
  191. 191. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes 24
  192. 192. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen 24
  193. 193. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals 24
  194. 194. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles 24
  195. 195. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose 24
  196. 196. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants 24
  197. 197. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls 24
  198. 198. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls 24
  199. 199. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin 24
  200. 200. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin w structure in arthropods & fungi 24
  201. 201. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin w structure in arthropods & fungi n exoskeleton 24
  202. 202. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin w structure in arthropods & fungi n exoskeleton 24
  203. 203. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin w structure in arthropods & fungi n exoskeleton 24
  204. 204. BIG carbohydrates§ Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animals n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin w structure in arthropods & fungi n exoskeleton 24
  205. 205. BIG carbohydrates § Polysaccharides u large carbohydrates § starch w energy storage in plants n potatoes § glycogen w energy storage in animalspoly = many n in liver & muscles § cellulose w structure in plants n cell walls § chitin w structure in arthropods & fungi n exoskeleton 24
  206. 206. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = 25
  207. 207. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide 25
  208. 208. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide energy storage 25
  209. 209. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide starch energy storage 25
  210. 210. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide starch (plant) energy storage 25
  211. 211. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide starch (plant) energy storageglycogen 25
  212. 212. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide starch (plant) energy storageglycogen(animal) 25
  213. 213. Digesting starch vs. cellulose 26
  214. 214. Digesting starch vs. cellulose 26
  215. 215. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy todigest 26
  216. 216. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigest 26
  217. 217. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigest 26
  218. 218. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigest 26
  219. 219. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigest 26
  220. 220. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigestcellulosehard todigest 26
  221. 221. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigestcellulosehard todigest enzyme 26
  222. 222. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigestcellulosehard todigest 26
  223. 223. Digesting starch vs. cellulosestarcheasy to enzymedigestcellulosehard todigest 26
  224. 224. Cellulose 27
  225. 225. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants 27
  226. 226. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants u herbivores can digest cellulose well 27
  227. 227. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants u herbivores can digest cellulose well u most carnivores cannot digest cellulose 27
  228. 228. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants u herbivores can digest cellulose well u most carnivores cannot digest cellulose § that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients 27
  229. 229. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants u herbivores can digest cellulose well u most carnivores cannot digest cellulose § that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients § cellulose = roughage 27
  230. 230. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants u herbivores can digest cellulose well u most carnivores cannot digest cellulose § that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients § cellulose = roughage w stays undigested 27
  231. 231. Cellulose§ Cell walls in plants u herbivores can digest cellulose well u most carnivores cannot digest cellulose § that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients § cellulose = roughage w stays undigested w keeps material moving in your intestines 27
  232. 232. 28
  233. 233. Proteins 28
  234. 234. Proteins: 29
  235. 235. Proteins: Multipurpose molecules 29
  236. 236. Proteins 30
  237. 237. ProteinsExamples 30
  238. 238. ProteinsExamples 30
  239. 239. ProteinsExamples u muscle 30
  240. 240. ProteinsExamples u muscle u skin, hair, fingernails, claws 30
  241. 241. ProteinsExamples u muscle u skin, hair, fingernails, claws collagen (skin) 30
  242. 242. ProteinsExamples u muscle u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin collagen (skin) 30
  243. 243. ProteinsExamples u muscle u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin pepsin collagen (skin) 30
  244. 244. ProteinsExamples u muscle u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin pepsin u pepsin collagen (skin) 30
  245. 245. ProteinsExamples u muscle u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin pepsin u pepsin § digestive enzyme in stomach collagen (skin) 30
  246. 246. ProteinsExamples u muscle insulin u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin pepsin u pepsin § digestive enzyme in stomach collagen (skin) 30
  247. 247. ProteinsExamples u muscle insulin u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin pepsin u pepsin § digestive enzyme in stomach u insulin collagen (skin) 30
  248. 248. ProteinsExamples u muscle insulin u skin, hair, fingernails, claws § collagen, keratin pepsin u pepsin § digestive enzyme in stomach u insulin § hormone that controls blood sugar levels collagen (skin) 30
  249. 249. Proteins 31
  250. 250. Proteins§ Function: 31
  251. 251. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions 31
  252. 252. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones 31
  253. 253. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another 31
  254. 254. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin 31
  255. 255. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin 31
  256. 256. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin 31
  257. 257. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin § movement 31
  258. 258. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin § movement w muscle 31
  259. 259. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin § movement w muscle § immune system 31
  260. 260. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin § movement w muscle § immune system w protect against germs 31
  261. 261. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin § movement w muscle § immune system w protect against germs § enzymes 31
  262. 262. Proteins§ Function: u many, many functions § hormones w signals from one body system to another w insulin § movement w muscle § immune system w protect against germs § enzymes w help chemical reactions 31
  263. 263. Proteins§ Building block = H O H | || —C—C—OH —N— H | 32
  264. 264. Proteins§ Building block = amino acids H O H | || —C—C—OH —N— H | 32
  265. 265. Proteins§ Building block = amino acids amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid H O H | || —C—C—OH —N— H | 32
  266. 266. Proteins§ Building block = amino acids amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid u 20 different amino acids H O H | || —C—C—OH —N— H | 32
  267. 267. Proteins§ Building block = amino acids amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid u 20 different amino acids H O H | || —C—C—OH —N— H | variable group 32
  268. 268. Proteins§ Building block = amino acids amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid u 20 different amino acids There’s H O 20 of us… H | || like 20 different letters in an —C—C—OH —N— alphabet! Can make lots of H | different variable words group 32
  269. 269. Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide) 33
  270. 270. Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid 33
  271. 271. Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid § Each amino acid is different 33
  272. 272. Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid § Each amino acid is different u some “like” water & dissolve in it 33
  273. 273. Amino acid chains § Proteins u amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid § Each amino acid is different u some “like” water & dissolve in it u some “fear” water & separate from it 33
  274. 274. For proteins: SHAPE matters! growthhormone hemoglobin pepsin collagen 34
  275. 275. For proteins: SHAPE matters! § Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape growthhormone hemoglobin pepsin collagen 34
  276. 276. For proteins: SHAPE matters! § Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape u that’s what happens in the cell! growthhormone hemoglobin pepsin collagen 34
  277. 277. For proteins: SHAPE matters! § Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape u that’s what happens in the cell! § Different shapes = different jobs growthhormone hemoglobin pepsin collagen 34
  278. 278. Primary (1°) structure lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria 35
  279. 279. Primary (1°) structure § Order of amino acids in chain lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria 35
  280. 280. Primary (1°) structure § Order of amino acids in chain u slight change in amino acid sequence can affect protein’s structure & its function lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria 35
  281. 281. Primary (1°) structure § Order of amino acids in chain u slight change in amino acid sequence can affect protein’s structure & its function lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria 35
  282. 282. Primary (1°) structure § Order of amino acids in chain u slight change in amino acid sequence can affect protein’s structure & its function § even just one amino acid change can make all the difference! lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria 35
  283. 283. Secondary (2°) structure 36
  284. 284. Secondary (2°) structure§ “Local folding” 36
  285. 285. Secondary (2°) structure§ “Local folding” u folding along short sections of polypeptide 36
  286. 286. Secondary (2°) structure§ “Local folding” u folding along short sections of polypeptide u interactions between adjacent amino acids 36
  287. 287. Secondary (2°) structure§ “Local folding” u folding along short sections of polypeptide u interactions between adjacent amino acids u forms sections of 3-D structure 36
  288. 288. Tertiary (3°) structure 37
  289. 289. Tertiary (3°) structure§ “Whole molecule folding” 37
  290. 290. Tertiary (3°) structure§ “Whole molecule folding” u interactions between distant amino acids 37
  291. 291. Quaternary (4°) structure 38
  292. 292. Quaternary (4°) structure§ More than one polypeptide chain bonded together 38
  293. 293. Quaternary (4°) structure§ More than one polypeptide chain bonded together u only then does polypeptide become functional protein 38
  294. 294. Quaternary (4°) structure § More than one polypeptide chain bonded together u only then does polypeptide become functional proteincollagen = skin & tendons 38
  295. 295. Quaternary (4°) structure § More than one polypeptide chain bonded together u only then does polypeptide become functional proteincollagen = skin & tendons hemoglobin 38
  296. 296. Protein structure (review) 39
  297. 297. Protein structure (review)1° 39
  298. 298. Protein structure (review)1° amino acid sequencepeptide bonds 39
  299. 299. Protein structure (review)1° amino acid sequencepeptide bonds determined by DNA 39
  300. 300. Protein structure (review)1° amino acid sequencepeptide bonds determined 2° by DNA 39
  301. 301. Protein structure (review)1° amino acid sequencepeptide bonds determined 2° by DNA R groups short 3D segments 39
  302. 302. Protein structure (review) 3°1° amino acid sequencepeptide bonds determined 2° by DNA R groups short 3D segments 39
  303. 303. Protein structure (review) R groups whole molecule folding 3°1° amino acid sequencepeptide bonds determined 2° by DNA R groups short 3D segments 39
  304. 304. Protein structure (review) R groups whole molecule folding 3°1° amino acid sequence 4°peptide bonds determined 2° by DNA R groups short 3D segments 39
  305. 305. Protein structure (review) R groups whole molecule folding 3°1° multiple amino acid polypeptides sequence 4°peptide bonds determined 2° by DNA R groups short 3D segments 39
  306. 306. It’s SHAPE that matters! 40
  307. 307. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape 40
  308. 308. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape 40
  309. 309. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job 40
  310. 310. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” 40
  311. 311. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” § temperature 40
  312. 312. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” § temperature § pH (acidity) 40
  313. 313. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” § temperature § pH (acidity) folded 40
  314. 314. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” § temperature § pH (acidity) unfolded “denatured” folded 40
  315. 315. It’s SHAPE that matters! § Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape § Unfolding a protein destroys its shape u wrong shape = can’t do its job u unfolding proteins = “denature” § temperature § pH (acidity) unfolded “denatured” In Biology, it’s not the size, it’s the SHAPE that matters! folded 40
  316. 316. 41
  317. 317. Lipids: Fats & Oils 41
  318. 318. Lipids 42
  319. 319. LipidsConcentrated energy molecules 42
  320. 320. Lipids 43
  321. 321. Lipids § Examples 43
  322. 322. Lipids § Examples u fats 43
  323. 323. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils 43
  324. 324. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils u waxes 43
  325. 325. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils u waxes u hormones 43
  326. 326. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils u waxes u hormones § sex hormones 43
  327. 327. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils u waxes u hormones § sex hormones w testosterone (male) 43
  328. 328. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils u waxes u hormones § sex hormones w testosterone (male) w estrogen (female) 43
  329. 329. Lipids § Examples u fats u oils u waxes u hormones § sex hormones w testosterone (male) w estrogen (female) 43
  330. 330. Lipids 44
  331. 331. Lipids§ Function: 44
  332. 332. Lipids§ Function: u energy storage 44
  333. 333. Lipids§ Function: u energy storage § very concentrated 44
  334. 334. Lipids§ Function: u energy storage § very concentrated § twice the energy as carbohydrates! 44
  335. 335. Lipids§ Function: u energy storage § very concentrated § twice the energy as carbohydrates! u cell membrane 44
  336. 336. Lipids§ Function: u energy storage § very concentrated § twice the energy as carbohydrates! u cell membrane u cushions organs u insulates body 44
  337. 337. Lipids§ Function: u energy storage § very concentrated § twice the energy as carbohydrates! u cell membrane u cushions organs u insulates body § think whale blubber! 44
  338. 338. Structure of Fat 45
  339. 339. Structure of Fatnot a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule” 45
  340. 340. Saturated fats 46
  341. 341. Saturated fats § Most animal fats 46
  342. 342. Saturated fats § Most animal fats u solid at room temperature 46
  343. 343. Saturated fats § Most animal fats u solid at room temperature § Limit the amount in your diet 46
  344. 344. Saturated fats § Most animal fats u solid at room temperature § Limit the amount in your diet u contributes to heart disease 46
  345. 345. Saturated fats § Most animal fats u solid at room temperature § Limit the amount in your diet u contributes to heart disease u deposits in arteries 46
  346. 346. Unsaturated fats 47
  347. 347. Unsaturated fats§ Plant, vegetable & fish fats 47
  348. 348. Unsaturated fats§ Plant, vegetable & fish fats u liquid at room temperature 47
  349. 349. Unsaturated fats§ Plant, vegetable & fish fats u liquid at room temperature § the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together 47
  350. 350. Unsaturated fats§ Plant, vegetable & fish fats u liquid at room temperature § the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together§ Better choice in your diet 47
  351. 351. Saturated vs. unsaturated 48
  352. 352. Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated 48
  353. 353. Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated 48
  354. 354. Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated 48
  355. 355. Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated ü 48
  356. 356. Other lipids in biology 49
  357. 357. Other lipids in biology § Cholesterol 49
  358. 358. Other lipids in biology § Cholesterol u good molecule in cell membranes 49
  359. 359. Other lipids in biology § Cholesterol u good molecule in cell membranes u make hormones from it 49
  360. 360. Other lipids in biology § Cholesterol u good molecule in cell membranes u make hormones from it § including sex hormones 49
  361. 361. Other lipids in biology § Cholesterol u good molecule in cell membranes u make hormones from it § including sex hormones u but too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease 49
  362. 362. Other lipids in biology 50
  363. 363. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids 50
  364. 364. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids u phospholipids 50
  365. 365. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids u phospholipids u heads are on the outside touching water 50
  366. 366. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids u phospholipids u heads are on the outside touching water § “like” water 50
  367. 367. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids u phospholipids u heads are on the outside touching water § “like” water u tails are on inside away from water 50
  368. 368. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids u phospholipids u heads are on the outside touching water § “like” water u tails are on inside away from water § “scared” of water 50
  369. 369. Other lipids in biology § Cell membranes are made out of lipids u phospholipids u heads are on the outside touching water § “like” water u tails are on inside away from water § “scared” of water u forms a barrier between the cell & the outside 50
  370. 370. Nucleic Acids: 51
  371. 371. Nucleic Acids:Information molecules 51
  372. 372. Nucleic Acids 52
  373. 373. Nucleic AcidsExamples u DNA 52
  374. 374. Nucleic AcidsExamples u DNA 52
  375. 375. Nucleic AcidsExamples u DNA 52
  376. 376. Nucleic AcidsExamples u DNA § DeoxyriboNucleic Acid u RNA 52
  377. 377. Nucleic AcidsExamples u DNA § DeoxyriboNucleic Acid u RNA § RiboNucleic Acid 52
  378. 378. Nucleic AcidsExamples u DNA § DeoxyriboNucleic Acid u RNA § RiboNucleic Acid RNA 52
  379. 379. Nucleic Acids 53
  380. 380. Nucleic Acids§ Function: 53
  381. 381. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material 53
  382. 382. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material 53
  383. 383. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information 53
  384. 384. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes 53
  385. 385. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins 53
  386. 386. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteins 53
  387. 387. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteins § transfers information 53
  388. 388. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteins § transfers information w blueprint for new cells 53
  389. 389. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteins § transfers information w blueprint for new cells w blueprint for next generation 53
  390. 390. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteins § transfers information w blueprint for new cells w blueprint for next generation 53
  391. 391. Nucleic Acids§ Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteins § transfers information w blueprint for new cells w blueprint for next generation 53
  392. 392. Nucleic Acids § Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteinsDNA § transfers information w blueprint for new cells w blueprint for next generation 53
  393. 393. Nucleic Acids § Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteinsDNA § transfers information w blueprint for new cells w blueprint for next generation 53
  394. 394. Nucleic Acids § Function: u genetic material § stores information w genes w blueprint for building proteins n DNA → RNA → proteinsDNA § transfers information w blueprint for new cells w blueprint for next generation proteins 53
  395. 395. Nucleic acids § Building block = sugar N base phosphate 54
  396. 396. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides sugar N base phosphate 54
  397. 397. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides sugar N base phosphate 54
  398. 398. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide sugar N base phosphate 54
  399. 399. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide u 5 different nucleotides sugar N base phosphate 54
  400. 400. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide u 5 different nucleotides u different nitrogen bases sugar N base phosphate 54
  401. 401. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide u 5 different nucleotides u different nitrogen bases u A, T, C, G, U sugar N base phosphate 54
  402. 402. Nucleic acids § Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide u 5 different nucleotides Nitrogen bases u different nitrogen bases I’m the u A, T, C, G, U A,T,C,G or U part! sugar N base phosphate 54
  403. 403. Nucleotide chains 55
  404. 404. Nucleotide chains§ Nucleic acids 55
  405. 405. Nucleotide chains sugar N base§ Nucleic acids phosphate 55
  406. 406. Nucleotide chains sugar N base§ Nucleic acids phosphate sugar N base phosphate 55

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