Honors Biology Macromolecules
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Honors Biology Macromolecules

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  • Most macromolecules are polymers • build: condensation (dehydration) reaction • breakdown: hydrolysis An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers
  • Animals do not have the enzyme to digest cellulose. We need the help of bacteria living in our intestines.
  • Cross-linking between polysaccharide chains = rigid & hard to digest The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant or a horse (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.
  • Sickle cell anemia: 1 DNA letter changes 1 amino acid = serious disease Hemoglobin mutation: bends red blood cells out of shape & they clog your veins.
  • It’s a helix or B sheet within a single region. Can have both in one protein but a specific region is one or another
  • How the whole thing holds together
  • Structure equals function wonderfully illustrated by proteins Collagen is just like rope -- enables your skin to be strong and flexible.
  • sequence determines structure and… structure determines function. Change the sequence & that changes the structure which changes the function.
  • It’s a helix or B sheet within a single region. Can have both in one protein but a specific region is one or another
  • when cells divide, they must duplicate DNA exactly for the new “daughter” cells Why is this a good system?
  • The greatest understatement in biology!

Honors Biology Macromolecules Honors Biology Macromolecules Presentation Transcript

  • The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?
    • 96% of living organisms is made of:
      • carbon (C)
      • oxygen (O)
      • hydrogen (H)
      • nitrogen (N)
    Elements of Life
  • Molecules of Life
    • Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms
    • What are bodies made of?
      • carbohydrates
        • sugars & starches
      • proteins
      • fats (lipids)
      • nucleic acids
        • DNA, RNA
  • Why do we eat?
    • We eat to take in more of these chemicals
      • Food for building materials
        • to make more of us (cells)
        • for growth
        • for repair
      • Food to make energy
        • calories
        • to make ATP
    ATP
  • What do we need to eat?
    • Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy
        • for building & running bodies
      • carbohydrates
      • proteins
      • fats
      • nucleic acids
      • vitamins
      • minerals, salts
      • water
    • Water
      • 65% of your body is H 2 O
      • water is inorganic
        • doesn’t contain carbon
    • Rest of you is made of carbon molecules
      • organic molecules
        • carbohydrates
        • proteins
        • fats
        • nucleic acids
    Don’t forget water
  • How do we make these molecules?
    • We build them!
    2006-2007
  • Building large molecules of life
    • Chain together smaller molecules
      • building block molecules = monomers
    • Big molecules built from little molecules
      • polymers
    • Small molecules = building blocks
    • Bond them together = polymers
    Building large organic molecules
  • Building important polymers sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide Carbohydrates = built from sugars Proteins = built from amino acids Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid –
  • How to build large molecules
    • Synthesis
      • building bigger molecules from smaller molecules
      • building cells & bodies
        • repair
        • growth
        • reproduction
    + ATP
  • How to build a polymer
    • Synthesis
      • joins monomers by “taking” H 2 O out
        • one monomer donates OH –
        • other monomer donates H +
        • together these form H 2 O
      • requires energy & enzymes
    Dehydration synthesis Condensation reaction H 2 O HO HO H H H HO enzyme
  • How to take large molecules apart
    • Digestion
      • taking big molecules apart
      • getting raw materials
        • for synthesis & growth
      • making energy (ATP)
        • for synthesis, growth & everyday functions
    + ATP
  • How to break down a polymer
    • Digestion
      • use H 2 O to breakdown polymers
        • reverse of dehydration synthesis
        • break off one monomer at a time
        • H 2 O is split into H + and OH –
          • H + & OH – attach to ends
      • requires enzymes
      • releases energy
    Hydrolysis Digestion H 2 O HO H HO H HO H enzyme
  • Example of digestion
    • Starch is digested to glucose
    starch glucose ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP
  • Example of synthesis
    • amino acids = building block
    • protein = polymer
    amino acids protein
    • Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids
  • Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates: Energy molecules OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O
  • Carbohydrates
    • Building block molecules =
    sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar sugars sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar
  • Carbohydrates
    • Function:
      • quick energy
      • energy storage
      • structure
        • cell wall in plants
    • Examples
      • sugars
      • starches
      • cellulose (cell wall)
    glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 starch sucrose
  • Sugars = building blocks
    • Names for sugars usually end in
      • glucose
      • fructose
      • sucrose
      • maltose
    - ose OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose fructose maltose
  • Building carbohydrates
    • Synthesis
    | glucose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two
  • Building carbohydrates
    • Synthesis
    | fructose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide | sucrose (table sugar) 2 sugars = disaccharide How sweet it is!
  • BIG carbohydrates
    • Polysaccharides
      • large carbohydrates
        • starch
          • energy storage in plants
            • potatoes
        • glycogen
          • energy storage in animals
            • in liver & muscles
        • cellulose
          • structure in plants
            • cell walls
        • chitin
          • structure in arthropods & fungi
            • exoskeleton
    poly = many
  • Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide
  • Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest cellulose hard to digest enzyme enzyme
  • Cellulose
    • Cell walls in plants
      • herbivores can digest cellulose well
      • most carnivores cannot digest cellulose
        • that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients
        • cellulose = roughage
          • stays undigested
          • keeps material moving in your intestines
  • Proteins
  • Proteins: Multipurpose molecules
  • Proteins
    • Examples
      • muscle
      • skin, hair, fingernails, claws
        • collagen, keratin
      • pepsin
        • digestive enzyme in stomach
      • insulin
        • hormone that controls blood sugar levels
    collagen (skin) insulin pepsin
  • Proteins
    • Function:
      • many, many functions
        • hormones
          • signals from one body system to another
          • insulin
        • movement
          • muscle
        • immune system
          • protect against germs
        • enzymes
          • help chemical reactions
  • Proteins
    • Building block =
    variable group amino acids
    • 20 different amino acids
    amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – — N — H H H | — C— | C—OH || O There’s 20 of us… like 20 different letters in an alphabet! Can make lots of different words
  • Amino acid chains
    • Proteins
      • amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)
    • Each amino acid is different
    • some “like” water & dissolve in it
    • some “fear” water & separate from it
    amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid
  • For proteins: SHAPE matters !
    • Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape
      • that’s what happens in the cell!
    • Different shapes = different jobs
    pepsin hemoglobin growth hormone collagen
  • Primary (1°) structure
    • Order of amino acids in chain
      • slight change in amino acid sequence can affect protein’s structure & its function
        • even just one amino acid change can make all the difference!
    lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria
  • Secondary (2°) structure
    • “ Local folding ”
      • folding along short sections of polypeptide
      • interactions between adjacent amino acids
      • forms sections of 3-D structure
  • Tertiary (3°) structure
    • “ Whole molecule folding ”
      • interactions between distant amino acids
  • Quaternary (4°) structure
    • More than one polypeptide chain bonded together
      • only then does polypeptide become functional protein
    hemoglobin collagen = skin & tendons
  • Protein structure (review) amino acid sequence peptide bonds 1° determined by DNA R groups short 3D segments R groups whole molecule folding 3° multiple polypeptides 4° 2°
  • It’s SHAPE that matters!
    • Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape
    • Unfolding a protein destroys its shape
      • wrong shape = can’t do its job
      • unfolding proteins = “denature”
        • temperature
        • pH (acidity)
    folded unfolded “denatured” In Biology, it’s not the size, it’s the SHAPE that matters!
  • Lipids: Fats & Oils
    • Lipids
    Concentrated energy molecules
  • Lipids
    • Examples
      • fats
      • oils
      • waxes
      • hormones
        • sex hormones
          • testosterone (male)
          • estrogen (female)
  • Lipids
    • Function:
      • energy storage
        • very concentrated
        • twice the energy as carbohydrates!
      • cell membrane
      • cushions organs
      • insulates body
        • think whale blubber!
  • Structure of Fat not a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule”
  • Saturated fats
    • Most animal fats
      • solid at room temperature
    • Limit the amount in your diet
      • contributes to heart disease
      • deposits in arteries
  • Unsaturated fats
    • Plant, vegetable & fish fats
      • liquid at room temperature
        • the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together
    • Better choice in your diet
  • Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated 
  • Other lipids in biology
    • Cholesterol
      • good molecule in cell membranes
      • make hormones from it
        • including sex hormones
      • but too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease
  • Other lipids in biology
    • Cell membranes are made out of lipids
      • phospholipids
      • heads are on the outside touching water
        • “like” water
      • tails are on inside away from water
        • “scared” of water
      • forms a barrier between the cell & the outside
  • Nucleic Acids: Information molecules
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Examples
      • DNA
        • DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
      • RNA
        • RiboNucleic Acid
    RNA
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Function:
      • genetic material
        • stores information
          • genes
          • blueprint for building proteins
            • DNA -> RNA -> proteins
        • transfers information
          • blueprint for new cells
          • blueprint for next generation
    DNA proteins
  • Nucleic acids
    • Building block =
    nucleotides
    • 5 different nucleotides
    • different nitrogen bases
    • A, T, C, G, U
    nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide phosphate sugar N base Nitrogen bases I’m the A,T,C,G or U part!
  • Nucleotide chains
    • Nucleic acids
      • nucleotides chained into a polymer
        • DNA
          • double-sided
          • double helix
          • A, C, G, T
        • RNA
          • single-sided
          • A, C, G, U
    phosphate sugar N base phosphate sugar N base phosphate sugar N base phosphate sugar N base strong bonds RNA
  • DNA
    • Double strand twists into a double helix
      • weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the 2 strands
        • A pairs with T
          • A :: T
        • C pairs with G
          • C :: G
      • the two strands can separate when our cells need to make copies of it
    weak bonds
  • Copying DNA
    • Replication
      • copy DNA
      • 2 strands of DNA helix are complementary
        • they are matching
        • have one, can build other
        • have one, can rebuild the whole
    • Copying DNA
      • pairing of the bases allows each strand to serve as a pattern for a new strand
    Newly copied strands of DNA DNA replication