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Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration
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Honors Biology - Cellular Respiration

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  • 1. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATPRegents Biology 2009-2010
  • 2. “Burn fuels” to make energy combustion making heat energy by burning fuels in one step fuel O2 (carbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat aerobic respiration making ATP energy (& some heat) by burning fuels in many small steps ATP food O2 ATP + CO2 + H2O (+ heat)Regents Biology (carbohydrates)
  • 3. Energy needs of life  Animals are energy consumers  What do we need energy for?  synthesis (building for growth)  reproduction  active transport  movement  temperature control (making heat)Regents Biology
  • 4. What is energy in biology? ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate Whoa! HOT stuff!Regents Biology 2009-2010
  • 5. Harvesting energy stored in food  Cellular respiration  breaking down food to produce ATP  in mitochondria ATP food  using oxygen  “aerobic” respiration  usually digesting glucose  but could be other sugars, O2 fats, or proteins glucose + oxygen  energy + carbon + water dioxide CH O +Regents Biology 6 6 12 6O2  ATP + 6CO2 + 6H2O
  • 6. What do we need to make energy?  The “Furnace” for making energy  mitochondria Make ATP!  Fuel Make ATP! All I do all day…  food: carbohydrates, fats, proteins And no one even notices!  Helpers  oxygen  enzymes food  Product enzymes  ATP  Waste products ATP  carbon dioxide O2  then used by plants water CO2 Regents Biology H2O
  • 7. Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cellsRegents Biology
  • 8. Overview of cellular respiration  3 metabolic stages  Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis  respiration without O2  in cytosol  Aerobic respiration  respiration using O2  in mitochondria 2. Krebs cycle 3. Electron transport chain CH O +Regents Biology 6 12 6 6O2  ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 (+ heat)
  • 9. Cellular Respiration Stage 1: GlycolysisRegents Biology
  • 10. Glycolysis  Breaking down glucose  “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) In the cytosol? glucose      pyruvate Why does that make 6C 2x 3C evolutionary sense?  ancient pathway which harvests energy  where energy transfer first evolved  transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP  still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration  but it’s inefficient  generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose  occurs in cytosol That’s not enoughRegents Biology ATP for me!
  • 11. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yield 2 ATPRegents Biology 2 NADH
  • 12. Cellular Respiration Stage 2: Krebs CycleRegents Biology
  • 13. Use Pyruvate to Make Electron Carriers H+ H+  Occurs in H+ H+ + H+ H+ H H+ Mitochondria  Krebs cycle produces large quantities of ADP + Pi electron carriers ATP H+  NADH  FADH2  go to Electron Transport Chain! What’s so important about electron carriers?Regents Biology
  • 14. Energy accounting of Krebs cycle 4 NAD + 1 FAD 4 NADH + 1 FADH22x pyruvate          CO2 3C 3x 1C 1 ADP 1 ATP ATP Net gain = 2 ATP = 8 NADH + 2 FADH2Regents Biology
  • 15. Cellular Respiration Stage 3: Electron Transport ChainRegents Biology
  • 16. ATP accounting so far…  Glycolysis  2 ATP  Kreb’s cycle  2 ATP  Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4 ATP! There’s got to be a better way! I need a lot more ATP! A working muscle recycles overRegents Biology 10 million ATPs per second
  • 17. There is a better way!  Electron Transport Chain  series of proteins built into inner mitochondrial membrane  uses transport proteins & enzymes  transport of electrons from carriers down ETC linked to pumping of H+  yields ~36 ATP from 1 glucose!  only in presence of O2 (aerobic respiration) That sounds more O2Regents Biology like it!
  • 18. But what “pulls” theelectrons down the ETC? H2O O2 electrons flow downhill to O2 oxidative phosphorylationRegents Biology
  • 19. Cellular respiration 2 ATP + 2 ATP + ~34ATPRegents Biology
  • 20. A Body’s Energy Budget 1 make energy • energy needed eat food ATP { even at rest • activity • temperature control 2 synthesis (building) { • growth • reproduction • repairRegents Biology 3 storage { • glycogen (animal starch) • fat
  • 21. What if oxygen is missing? O2  No oxygen available = can’t complete aerobic respiration  Anaerobic respiration  also known as fermentation  alcohol fermentation  lactic acid fermentation yeast  no oxygen or no mitochondria (bacteria)  can only make very little ATP  large animals cannot survive bacteriaRegents Biology
  • 22. O2 Anaerobic Respiration  Fermentation  alcohol fermentation  yeast  glucose  ATP + CO2+ alcohol  make beer, wine, bread  lactic acid fermentation  bacteria, animals  glucose  ATP + lactic acid  bacteria make yogurt  animals feel muscle fatigue Tastes good… but not enough energy for me!Regents Biology

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