Chapter 31 - Fungi

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  • Lichens grow in the leftover spots of the natural world that are too harsh or limited for most other organisms. They are pioneers on bare rock, desert sand, cleared soil , dead wood, animal bones, rusty metal, and living bark. Able to shut down metabolically during periods of unfavorable conditions, they can survive extremes of heat, cold, and drought. As adaptations for life in marginal habitats, lichens produce an arsenal of more than 500 unique biochemical compounds that serve to control light exposure, repel herbivores, kill attacking microbes, and discourage competition from plants. Among these are many pigments and antibiotics that have made lichens very useful to people in traditional societies.
  • Chapter 31 - Fungi

    1. 1. Kingdom: Fungi Domain Eukarya Domain Domain Domain Bacteria Archaea EukaryaAP Biology 2007-2008 Common ancestor
    2. 2. General characteristics  Classification criteria  eukaryotes  heterotrophs  feed by absorption  mostly multicellular  except unicellular yeasts  cell wall  chitin  rigid polysaccharide  sexual & asexual reproductionAP Biology
    3. 3. Fungal Structure  Fungal body  mycelium  thread-like cells  hyphae  Cells  multiple nuclei  Cell wall  chitin  just like crab shellsAP Biology
    4. 4. Internal structure chitin cell wall septum  Eukaryotic cells  long, thread-like cells pore  filamentous nuclei  incomplete divisions between cells  septum  multiple nuclei Aaaaah, structure–function relationship!AP Biology
    5. 5. Modes of Nutrition  Heterotrophic fungal hypha  secrete digestive enzymes  feed by absorption  parasites  feeding on living creatures plant cell wall  predators plant cell plant cell membrane  paralyzing prey  decomposer  breakdown dead remains Fungi live IN their food! It’s like you livingAP Biology in Chocolate cake!
    6. 6. Fungal Diversity c ota c ota co ta c ota omy omy o my o my tr idi yg idi sc y Z B as A ChAP Biology Fungi
    7. 7. Ecological Roles  Decomposers  recycle nutrients  Symbiotic Relationships  lichen  fungi + algae  cyanobacteria or green algae  pioneer species in Lichens are fungi ecosystems that have discovered  makes soil from bare rock agriculture!  mycorrhizae  fungi + plants  enables plants to absorb more waterAP Biology
    8. 8. Mycorrhizae  Critical role in plant growth  extends water absorption of roots without with mycorrhizae mycorrhizae EndomycorrhizaAP Biology Ectomycorrhiza
    9. 9. Reproduction  Asexual  budding in yeast  Sexual  spores  spread by wind  joining of + & – haploid spores haploid sporesAP Biology
    10. 10. Zygomycete (Bread Mold) Life Cycle spores (haploid) mating strain hypha sporangium MEIOSIS (2n) mating strain (n) diploid haploid FUSION ofAP Biology + and – gametangia
    11. 11. Basidiomycete Life Cycle gills lined fruiting body with basidia basidium (n + n) dikaryotic 2n (diploid) (n) zygote haploid strain MEIOSIS spores FUSION of andAP Biology hyphae strain
    12. 12. Fairy RingsAP Biology
    13. 13. The FIRST AntibioticsAP Biology
    14. 14. Any Questions??AP Biology 2007-2008

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