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 Evolution - Honors Biology
 

Evolution - Honors Biology

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     Evolution - Honors Biology Evolution - Honors Biology Presentation Transcript

    • Evolution Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Evolution! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Evolution! Evolution! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Evolution! Evolution! Evolution! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Evolution! Isn’t evolution just a THEORY? Evolution! Evolution! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Evolution! Isn’t evolution just a THEORY? Evolution! Evolution! Honors Biology What about religion?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • What is Evolution? § Evolution u changes in living organisms over time u explains how modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Evolution! Isn’t evolution just a THEORY? Why do we accept this as a Scientific Principle? Evolution! Evolution! Honors Biology What about religion?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Theory? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Theory? § a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Theory? § a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations Cell Theory Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Theory? § a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations Cell Theory Honors Biology Heliocentric Solar SystemTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Theory? § a well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations Cell Theory Plate Tectonic Theory Honors Biology Heliocentric Solar SystemTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural law Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law § Explains what is observed Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law § Accepted without § Explains what is evidence observed Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law § Accepted without § Explains what is evidence observed § TESTABLE Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law § Accepted without § Explains what is evidence observed § NOT TESTABLE § TESTABLE Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law § Accepted without § Explains what is evidence observed § NOT TESTABLE § TESTABLE § Self correcting Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Religion? SCIENCE RELIGION § Guided by natural § Based on faith law § Accepted without § Explains what is evidence observed § NOT TESTABLE § TESTABLE § Deals with § Self correcting supernatural Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth Diversity of Life on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth Biodiversity of Life on Earth Diversity of Life on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth § How do we know this? Biodiversity of Life on Earth Diversity of Life on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Biodiversity of Life on Earth Diversity of Life on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Biodiversity of Life on Earth Diversity of Life on Earth How did all these creatures come about? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § There are many different creatures on Earth § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Biodiversity of Life on Earth Diversity of Life on Earth What How did all these creatures come about? accounts for all this biological diversity? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics cells Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics cells Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics cells DNA Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics Unity of Life on Earth cells DNA Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics § How do we know this? Unity of Life on Earth cells DNA Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Unity of Life on Earth cells DNA Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § All creatures have common characteristics § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Unity of Life on Earth cells DNA How could all of life have the same basic features? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old § How do we know this? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old § How do we know this? TESTING & OBSERVATION Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old § How do we know this? TESTING & OBSERVATION Radioactive Dating of the Rocks Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old § How do we know this? TESTING & OBSERVATION Radioactive Dating of the Rocks Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old § How do we know this? TESTING & OBSERVATION Radioactive Dating of the Rocks Life is very old! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § The Earth is very old § How do we know this? TESTING & OBSERVATION Radioactive Dating of the Rocks Life is very old! What’s happened to life during those billions of years? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Creatures have changed over time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Creatures have changed over time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Creatures have changed over time Fossil Record Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Creatures have changed over time § How do we know this? Fossil Record Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Creatures have changed over time § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Fossil Record Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § Many creatures that lived in the past don’t exist today Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § Many creatures that lived in the past don’t exist today Origin of Honors Biology new speciesTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § Many creatures that lived in the past don’t exist today OBSERVATION Origin of Honors Biology new speciesTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § The creatures alive today haven’t always been around Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § The creatures alive today haven’t always been around Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § The creatures alive today haven’t always been around Different species lived in the past Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § The creatures alive today haven’t always been around OBSERVATION Different species lived in the past Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § Many creatures in the past looked like living ones we see today Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § Many creatures in the past looked like living ones we see today “Family Tree” Relatives with similar, but not the same traits Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What has the fossil record shown us? § Many creatures in the past looked like living ones we see today OBSERVATION “Family Tree” Relatives with similar, but not the same traits Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics § The Earth is very old Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics § The Earth is very old § Life is very old Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics § The Earth is very old § Life is very old § Life has changed over time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics § The Earth is very old § Life is very old § Life has changed over time § The changes have been little changes over long periods of time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics § The Earth is very old § Life is very old § Life has changed over time § The changes have been little changes over long periods of time Evolution Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Quick review, so far…. § Many different species alive today § All life shares common characteristics § The Earth is very old § Life is very old § Life has changed over time § The changes have been little changes over long periods of time Evolution Honors Biology But how does this work?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals Variation Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals § How do we know this? Variation Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Populations are a mix of different individuals § How do we know this? OBSERVATION Variation Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support Over-production Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support § Not everybody survives Over-production Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support § Not everybody survives Over-production Competition Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support § Not everybody survives § How do we know this? Over-production Competition Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What do we know? § Organisms have more offspring than the environment can support OBSERVATION § Not everybody survives § How do we know this? Over-production Competition Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Variation Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Variation Over-Production & Competition Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Variation Over-Production & Competition Adaptation Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Variation Over-Production & Competition Adaptation Nature selects the ones that “fit” the environment better … survive & reproduce Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • How does that work? Variation Over-Production & Competition Adaptation Nature selects the ones that “fit” the environment better … survive & reproduce Honors Biology Natural SelectionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory Adaptations u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • What determines survival? § Natural Selection u traits that help individuals survive § survive predators § survive disease § compete for food § compete for territory Adaptations u traits that help individuals reproduce § attracting a mate § compete for nesting sites § successfully raise young Survival & Reproduction of the Fittest Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest not the strongest… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest not the strongest… bravest… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest not the strongest… fastest… bravest… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest not the strongest… biggest… fastest… bravest… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest …the fittest! not the strongest… biggest… fastest… bravest… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest …the fittest! not the strongest… biggest… fastest… bravest… the traits that help an organism fit the environment better to Honors Biology survive & reproduceTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & Reproduction of the fittest …the fittest! not the strongest… biggest… fastest… bravest… Adaptations the traits that help an organism fit the environment better to Honors Biology survive & reproduceTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution explains Unity & Diversity Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution explains Unity & Diversity § Only evolution explains both u unity of life § similarities between all living things u diversity of life § wide variety of different creatures on Earth Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution explains Unity & Diversity § Only evolution explains both u unity of life § similarities between all living things u diversity of life § wide variety of different creatures on Earth Honors Biology DNATuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution explains Unity & Diversity § Only evolution explains both u unity of life § similarities between all living things u diversity of life § wide variety of different creatures on Earth Honors Biology DNATuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & reproduction of the fittest bug… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Survival & reproduction of the fittest bug… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Charles Darwin and Evolution er Warbl finch s Gr he Cactus ou inc eater nd f ee fin Insect eaters Tr ch es Seed eaters Bud eater Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Charles Darwin Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Charles Darwin Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Charles Darwin § Proposed a way how evolution works u How did creatures change over time? u by natural selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Charles Darwin § Proposed a way how evolution works u How did creatures change over time? u by natural selection § Collected a lot of evidence to support his ideas u 1809-1882 u British naturalist Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Voyage of the HMS Beagle Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Voyage of the HMS Beagle § Invited to travel around the world u 1831-1836 (22 years old!) u makes many observations of nature § main mission of the Beagle was to chart South American coastline Robert Fitzroy Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Voyage of the HMS Beagle Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Voyage of the HMS Beagle § Stopped in Galapagos Islands u 500 miles off coast of Ecuador Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Voyage of the HMS Beagle § Stopped in Galapagos Islands u 500 miles off coast of Ecuador Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Galapagos Recently formed volcanic islands. Most of animals on the Galápagos live nowhere else in world, but they look like species living on South American mainland. Honors Biology 800 km west of EcuadorTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Galapagos Recently formed volcanic islands. Most of animals on the Galápagos live nowhere else in world, but they look like species living on South American mainland. Honors Biology 800 km west of EcuadorTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Many of Darwin’s observations made him wonder… Why? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…many unique species Many of Darwin’s observations made him wonder… Why? Darwin asked: Why were these creatures found only on the Galapagos Islands? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…clues in the fossils Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…clues in the fossils Darwin found: Evidence that creatures have changed over time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…clues in the fossils Darwin found: Evidence that creatures have changed over time present day Armadillos Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…clues in the fossils Darwin found: Evidence that creatures have changed over time present day Armadillos ancient Armadillo Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found…clues in the fossils Darwin found: Evidence that creatures have changed over time present day Armadillos Darwin asked: Why should extinct armadillos & modern armadillos be found on ancient Armadillo same continent? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found: Different shells on tortoises on different islands Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found: Different shells on tortoises on different islands Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found: Different shells on tortoises on different islands Darwin asked: Is there a relationship between the environment & what an animal looks like? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. Finch? Sparrow? Honors Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. He thought he found Finch? Sparrow? very different kinds… Honors Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. He thought he found Finch? Sparrow? very different kinds… Honors Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. He thought he found Finch? Sparrow? very different kinds… Honors Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. He thought he found Finch? Sparrow? very different kinds… Honors Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin found… birds Darwin found: Many different birds on the Galapagos Islands. He thought he found Finch? Sparrow? very different kinds… Honors Biology Woodpecker? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… Finch? Finch? Sparrow? Sparrow? Honors Biology Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… Large ground Finch? Finch? Sparrow? Sparrow? finch Honors Biology Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… Large ground Finch? Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? Sparrow? finch Honors Biology Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… Large ground Finch? Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? Sparrow? finch Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… Large ground Finch? Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? Sparrow? finch Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… But there is only one species of finch on the Large ground Finch? Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? Sparrow? finch mainland! Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • But Darwin found… a lot of finches Darwin was amazed to find out: All 14 species of birds were finches… But there is only one species of finch on the Large ground Finch? Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? Sparrow? finch mainland! Darwin asked: If the Galapagos finches came from the mainland, why are they so different now? Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler? Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated with the different food they ate. Large ground Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? finch Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated with the different food they ate. Big seed eater Finch? Small ground finch Sparrow? Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated with the different food they ate. Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? Honors Biology Warbler finch Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated with the different food they ate. Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Tree finch Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated with the different food they ate. Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated Darwin said: with the different food they ate. Ahaaaa! Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South American finches were stranded on the Galapagos… Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! Darwin found: The differences between species of finches were associated Darwin said: with the different food they ate. Ahaaaa! Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South American finches were stranded on the Galapagos… Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! beaks are n different Darwin found: inherited variations The differences between species of finches were associated Darwin said: with the different food they ate. Ahaaaa! Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South American finches were stranded on the Galapagos… Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! beaks are n different Darwin found: inherited variations The differences n serve as adaptations between species of that help birds compete finches were associatedfor food Darwin said: with the different food they ate. Ahaaaa! Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South American finches were stranded on the Galapagos… Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! beaks are n different Darwin found: inherited variations The differences n serve as adaptations between species of that help birds compete finches were associatedfor food Darwin said: with the different food n these birds survive & they ate. Ahaaaa! reproduce Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South American finches were stranded on the Galapagos… Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! beaks are n different Darwin found: inherited variations The differences n serve as adaptations between species of that help birds compete finches were associatedfor food Darwin said: with the different food n these birds survive & they ate. Ahaaaa! reproduce Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South n pass on the genes for American finches those more fit beaks were stranded on the Galapagos… Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • The finches cinched it! beaks are n different Darwin found: inherited variations The differences n serve as adaptations between species of that help birds compete finches were associatedfor food Darwin said: with the different food n these birds survive & they ate. Ahaaaa! reproduce Big seed eater Finch? Small seed eater Sparrow? A flock of South n pass on the genes for American finches those more fit beaks were stranded on the n over time nature selected Galapagos… for different species with different beaks Honors Biology Insect eater Woodpecker? Leaf & bud eater Warbler?Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Relationship between species (beaks) & food Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Relationship between species (beaks) & food Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin’s finches Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin’s finches § Darwin’s conclusions u variations in beaks § differences in beaks in the original flock § adaptations to foods available on islands u natural selection for most fit § over many generations, the finches were selected for specific beaks & behaviors u offspring inherit successful traits § accumulation of winning traits: both beaks & behaviors u separate into different species Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • From 1 species to 14 species… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • From 1 species to 14 species… Warbler finch Cactus finch Woodpecker finch Sharp-beaked finch Small Small er insectivorous Warbl ground tree finch finch finch Gr s Large he Cactus ouinsectivorous Medium inc eater nd tree finch ground f ee fin Insect eaters finch Tr ch es Seed eaters Large Vegetarian ground tree finch Bud eater finch Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • From 1 species to 14 species… Warbler finch Cactus finch Woodpecker finch Sharp-beaked finch Small Small er insectivorous Warbl ground tree finch finch finch Gr s Large he Cactus ouinsectivorous Medium inc eater nd tree finch ground f ee fin Insect eaters finch Tr ch es Seed eaters Large Vegetarian ground tree finch Bud eater finch variation Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • From 1 species to 14 species… Warbler finch Cactus finch Woodpecker finch Sharp-beaked finch Small Small er insectivorous Warbl ground tree finch finch finch Gr s Large he Cactus ouinsectivorous Medium inc eater nd tree finch ground f ee fin Insect eaters finch Tr ch es Seed eaters Large Vegetarian ground tree finch Bud eater finch natural selection for best variation survival & reproduction Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Earlier ideas on Evolution Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Earlier ideas on Evolution § LaMarck u evolution by acquired traits § creatures developed traits during their lifetime § give those traits to their offspring u example § in reaching higher leaves giraffes stretch their necks & give the acquired longer neck to offspring u not accepted as valid Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Earlier ideas on Evolution § LaMarck u evolution by acquired traits § creatures developed traits during their lifetime § give those traits to their offspring u example § in reaching higher leaves giraffes stretch their necks & give the acquired longer neck to offspring u not accepted as valid Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin’s view of Evolution Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin’s view of Evolution Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin’s view of Evolution § Darwin u giraffes that already have long necks survive better u leave more offspring who inherit their long necks § variation § selection & survival § reproduction & inheritance of more fit traits Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Darwin’s view of Evolution § Darwin ü u giraffes that already have long necks survive better u leave more offspring who inherit their long necks § variation § selection & survival § reproduction & inheritance of more fit traits Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection Hunting for evolution clues… Elementary, my dear, Darwin! Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • 1. Fossil record Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 1. Fossil record § Layers of rock contain fossils u new layers cover older ones § creates a record over time u fossils show a series of organisms have lived on Earth § over a long period of time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Fossils tell a story… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Fossils tell a story… the Earth is old Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Fossils tell a story… the Earth is old Life is old Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Fossils tell a story… the Earth is old Life is old Life on Earth has changed Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution of birds Today’s organisms descended from ancestral species Fossil of Archaeopteryx § lived about 150 mya § links reptiles & birds Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution of birds Today’s organisms descended from ancestral species Fossil of Archaeopteryx § lived about 150 mya § links reptiles & birds Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution of birds Today’s organisms descended from ancestral species Fossil of Archaeopteryx § lived about 150 mya § links reptiles & birds Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Land Mammal ? ? ? ? Ocean Mammal Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Land Mammal ? e the e re ar iate ? Wh med inter ils? ? foss ? Ocean Mammal Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Land Mammal ? e the e re ar iate ? Wh med inter ils? ? foss ? Someone’s idea of a joke! Ocean Mammal Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • We found the fossil — no joke! Land Mammal ? e the e re ar iate ? Wh med inter ils? ? foss ? Someone’s idea of a joke! Ocean Mammal Honors Biology joke’s But the on them!!Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • We found the fossil — no joke! Land Mammal ? ? ? Someone’s idea of a joke! Ocean Mammal Honors Biology joke’s But the on them!!Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • We found the fossil — no joke! Land Mammal ? ? Someone’s idea of a joke! Ocean Mammal Honors Biology joke’s But the on them!!Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • We found the fossil — no joke! Land Mammal ? Someone’s idea of a joke! Ocean Mammal Honors Biology joke’s But the on them!!Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • We found the fossil — no joke! Land Mammal Complete series of transitional fossils Someone’s idea of a joke! Ocean Mammal Honors Biology joke’s But the on them!!Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution from sea to land Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution from sea to land § 2006 fossil discovery of early tetrapod u 4 limbs Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolution from sea to land § 2006 fossil discovery of early tetrapod u 4 limbs § Missing link from sea to land animals Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Anatomical record Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Anatomical record Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Anatomical record Animals with different structures on the surface Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Anatomical record Animals with different structures on the surface But when you look under the skin… Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Anatomical record Animals with different structures on the surface But when you look under the skin… It tells an evolutionary story of common ancestors Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Compare the bones § The same bones under the skin u limbs that perform different functions are built from the same bones Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Compare the bones § The same bones under the skin u limbs that perform different functions are built from the same bones Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Compare the bones § The same bones under the skin u limbs that perform different functions are built from the same bones Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Homologous structures Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Homologous structures § Structures that come from the same origin § homo- = same § -logous = information Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Homologous structures § Structures that come from the same origin § homo- = same § -logous = information § Forelimbs of human, cats, whales, & bats u same structure § on the inside u same development in embryo u different functions § on the outside u evidence of common ancestor Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these…How is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structuresHow is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similarHow is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similar § on the outsideHow is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similar § on the outside usame functionHow is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similar § on the outside usame function udifferent structure & developmentHow is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similar § on the outside usame function udifferent structure & development § on the insideHow is a bird like a bug? Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similar § on the outside usame function udifferent structure & development § on the insideHow is a bird like a bug? udifferent origin Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • But don’t be fooled by these… § Analogous structures ulook similar § on the outside usame function udifferent structure & development § on the insideHow is a bird like a bug? udifferent origin uno evolutionary relationship Honors BiologySolving a similar problem with a similar solutionTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Analogous structures § Dolphins: aquatic mammal § Fish: aquatic vertebrate uboth adapted to life in the sea unot closely related Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Analogous structures § Dolphins: aquatic mammal § Fish: aquatic vertebrate uboth adapted to life in the sea unot closely related Watch the tail! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution § 3 groups with wings u Does this mean they have a recent common ancestor? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution § 3 groups with wings u Does this mean they have a recent common ancestor? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution § 3 groups with wings u Does this mean they have a recent common ancestor? NO! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Flight evolved 3 Convergent evolution separate times — evolving similar § 3 groups with wings solutions to similar “problems” u Does this mean they have a recent common ancestor? They just came up with the NO! same answer! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Which is the fly vs. the bee? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Honors Biology fly beeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Which is the moth vs. the bee? Honors Biology fly beeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Convergent evolution led to mimicry § Why do these pairs look so similar? Monarch male Viceroy male poisonous edible Honors Biology fly bee moth beeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Vestigial organs § Hind leg bones on whale fossils Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Vestigial organs § Hind leg bones on whale fossils Why would whales have pelvis & leg bones if they were always sea creatures? Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Vestigial organs § Hind leg bones on whale fossils Why would whales have pelvis & leg bones if they were always sea creatures? Because they used to walk on land! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Comparative embryology § Development of embryo tells an evolutionary story u similar structures during development all vertebrate embryos have a “gill pouch” at one stage of development Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Molecular record § Comparing DNA & protein structure u everyone uses the same genetic code! § DNA Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Molecular record § Comparing DNA & protein structure u everyone uses the same genetic code! § DNA Human Macaque Dog Bird Frog Lamprey 8 32 45 67 125 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Molecular record § Comparing DNA & protein structure u everyone uses the same genetic code! § DNA Human Macaque Dog Bird Frog Lamprey§ compare common genes§ compare common proteins 8 32 45 67 125 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 3. Molecular record § Comparing DNA & protein structure u everyone uses the same genetic code! § DNA Human Macaque Dog Bird Frog Lamprey§ compare common genes§ compare common proteinsnumber of amino acids different 8 32 45 67 125from human hemoglobin 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Building “family” trees Closely related species are branches on the tree — coming from a common ancestor Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Building “family” trees Closely related species are branches on the tree — coming from a common ancestor Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 4. Artificial selection § How do we know natural selection can change a population? u we can recreate a similar process u “evolution by human selection” Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 4. Artificial selection § How do we know natural selection can change a population? u we can recreate a similar process u “evolution by human selection” “descendants” of wild mustard Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • 4. Artificial selection § How do we know natural selection can change a population? u we can recreate a similar process u “evolution by human selection” “descendants” of wild mustard Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Selective Breeding Humans create the change over time Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Selective Breeding Humans create the change over time “descendants” of the wolf Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Artificial Selection …and the examples keep coming! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Artificial Selection …and the examples keep coming! I liked breeding pigeons! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Artificial Selection …and the examples keep coming! I liked breeding pigeons! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Artificial Selection gone bad! § Unexpected consequences of artificial selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Artificial Selection gone bad! § Unexpected consequences of artificial selection Pesticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Artificial Selection gone bad! § Unexpected consequences of artificial selection Pesticide resistance Antibiotic resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Insecticide resistance § Spray the field, but… u insecticide didn’t kill all individuals § variation u resistant survivors reproduce u resistance is inherited u insecticide becomes less & less effective Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolutionary Forces What changes populations? Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Evolutionary Forces What changes populations? Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change § Genetic drift u frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events § random change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change § Genetic drift u frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events § random change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change § Genetic drift u frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events § random change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change § Genetic drift u frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events § random change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change § Genetic drift u frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events § random change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Forces of evolutionary change § Natural selection u traits that improve survival or reproduction will accumulate in the population § adaptive change § Genetic drift u frequency of traits can change in a population due to chance events § random change Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Natural Selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Natural Selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Natural Selection § Selection acts on any trait that affects survival or reproduction u predation selection u sexual selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual Selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual Selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual Selection § Acting on reproductive success u attractiveness to potential mate u fertility of gametes u successful rearing of offspring Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual Selection § Acting on reproductive success u attractiveness to potential mate u fertility of gametes u successful rearing of offspring Survival doesn’t matter if you don’t reproduce! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Sexual selection It’s FEMALE CHOICE, baby! Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution § Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution u predator-prey § disease & host u competitive species u mutualism § pollinators & flowers Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution § Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution u predator-prey § disease & host u competitive species u mutualism § pollinators & flowers Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution § Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution u predator-prey § disease & host u competitive species u mutualism § pollinators & flowers Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution § Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution u predator-prey § disease & host u competitive species u mutualism § pollinators & flowers Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution § Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution u predator-prey § disease & host u competitive species u mutualism § pollinators & flowers Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Coevolution § Two or more species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution u predator-prey § disease & host u competitive species u mutualism § pollinators & flowers Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL SELECTION Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL STABILIZING SELECTION SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL STABILIZING SELECTION SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology human birth weight horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL STABILIZING SELECTION SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology human birth weight horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL STABILIZING DISRUPTIVE SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology human birth weight horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Effects of Selection § Changes in the average trait of a population DIRECTIONAL STABILIZING DISRUPTIVE SELECTION SELECTION SELECTION giraffe neck Honors Biology human birth weight rock pocket mice horse sizeTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Genetic Drift Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Genetic Drift § Chance events changing frequency of traits in a population u not adaptation to environmental conditions § not selection u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck § some factor (disaster) reduces population to small number & then population recovers & expands again but from a limited gene pool Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Founder effect Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Founder effect § When a new population is started by only a small group of individuals u just by chance some rare alleles may be at high frequency; others may be missing u skew the gene pool of new population § human populations that started from small group of colonists § example: colonization of New World Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Founder effect § When a new population is started by only a small group of individuals u just by chance some rare alleles may be at high frequency; others may be missing u skew the gene pool of new population § human populations that started from small group of colonists § example: colonization of New World Honors Biology albino deer Seneca Army DepotTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Out of Africa 10-20,000ya 10-20,000ya 50,000ya Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Out of Africa Likely migration paths of humans out of Africa 10-20,000ya 10-20,000ya 50,000ya Many patterns of human traits reflect this migration Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Bottleneck effect Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool w not due to fitness § narrows the gene pool Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Cheetahs Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age u last 100 years § poaching & loss of habitat Honors BiologyTuesday, March 6, 12
    • Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12
    • Asking Questions is a good adaptation! Honors Biology 2011-2012Tuesday, March 6, 12