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Chapter 50 Class Presentation
 

Chapter 50 Class Presentation

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    Chapter 50 Class Presentation Chapter 50 Class Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Sensory and Motor Mechanisms
      Chapter 50
    • Complex sensory systems that facilitate survival.
    • Bats use sonar to detect prey.
    • Moths can detect the bat’s sonar.
    • Include diverse mechanisms that sense stimuli and generate appropriate movement.
    • 2. Describe the four general functions of receptor cells…
      Introduction of Sensory Reception
    • All stimuli represent forms of energy.
      Sensation involves converting energy into a change in the membrane potential of sensory receptors.
    • All stimuli represent forms of energy.
      Function of sensory pathways: sensory reception, transduction, transmission, an integration.
    • Sensation and perceptions begin with sensory reception.
      Detection of stimuli by receptors – both inside and outside of the body.
    • 3. Distinguish between sensory transduction and…
      Introduction of Sensory Reception
    • Sensory transduction: conversion of stimulus energy into change of membrane potential.
      Change is called receptor potential – many are very sensitive.
    • Transmission: sensory cell facilitate the movement of action potentials.
      Larger receptor potential = more rapid action potentials.
    • Integration: receptor potentials integrated through summation.
    • 4. Since all action potentials are the same, explain how the brain distinguishes…
      Introduction of Sensory Reception
    • Perception: the brain’s construction of stimuli
      Brain distinguishes stimuli from different receptors by the area where the action potentials arrive.
    • 6. Explain the importance of sensory adaptation.
      Introduction of Sensory Reception
    • Type of Sensory Receptors
    • 7. List the five categories of sensory receptors…
      Introduction of Sensory Reception
    • Mechanoreceptors: sense physical deformation.
      TOUCH!
    • Chemoreceptors: information about the total solute concentration of a solution.
      Respond to individual kinds of molecules.
    • Electromagnetic receptors: detect electromagnetic energy such as light, electricity and magnetism.
    • Thermoreceptors: respond to heat or cold.
      Regulate body temp. by signaling both surface and core temp.
    • Nociceptors: naked dendrites in the epidermis.
      Pain receptors.
    • 8. Explain the role of mechanoreceptors in hearing and balance.
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Hearing and perception of body equilibrium are related in most animals.
      Mechanoreceptors
    • 9. Describe the structure and function of invertebrate statocysts..
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Most invertebrates maintain equilibrium using statocysts.
      Detect movement of granules called statoliths.
    • 10. Explain how insects may detect sound.
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Many arthropods sense sounds with body hairs that vibrate.
      “Ears” consisting of tympanic membrane and receptor cells.
    • 11. Refer to a diagram of the human ear and give the function of each structure.
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Vibrations create percussion waves that vibrate tympanic membrane.
      Bones of the middle ear transmit the vibrations.
    • Vibrations create waves of fluid that move through vestibular canal.
      Waves cause the basilar membrane to vibrate, bending hair cells.
    • 12. Explain how the mammalian ear functions as a hearing organ.
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Bending of hair cells depolarizes the membranes.
      Sends action potential to the brain via the auditory nerve.
    • 13. Describe how the ear conveys information about volume and pitch of sound to the brain.
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Ear conveys information about volume and pitch.
    • 15. Describe the hearing and equilibrium system of nonmammalian vertebrates.
      Hearing and Equilibrium
    • Fishes have only a pair of inner ears near the brain.
      Also have lateral line system that detect and respond to water movement.
    • 16. Distinguish between tastants and odorants.
      Chemoreception: Taste and Smell
    • Taste and smell rely on similar set of sensory receptors.
      Terrestrial animals:
      Gustation: Taste, detection of chemicals called tastants.
      Olfaction: Smell, detection of odorant molecules.
    • Taste and smell rely on similar set of sensory receptors.
      Taste buds detect five taste perceptions: sweet, sour, salty, butter, and umami – different regions of the tongue.
    • 19. Describe what happens after an odorant binds to an ordorant receptor…
      Chemoreception: Taste and Smell
    • Olfactory receptors are neurons that line the upper portion of the nasal cavity.
    • Photoreception and Vision
    • 22. Refer to a diagram of the vertebrate eye…
      Photoreception and Vision
    • The basic structure of the vertebrate eye.
    • Muscle Function
    • Muscle activity is a response to input from the nervous system.
      The action of a muscle is always to contract.
    • Skeletal muscle characterized by a hierarchy of smaller and smaller units.
      Consists of a bundle of long fibers – each a single cell – running the length of the muscle.
      Each muscle fiber is a bundle of smaller myofibrils.
    • Two kinds of myofilaments.
      Thin: two strands of actin, one strand of regulatory protein.
      Thick: staggered arrays of myosin molecules.
    • Skeletal muscle also called striated muscle – arrangement of myofilaments create light and dark bands.
      Functional unit of a muscle is called a sarcomere – bordered by Z lines.
    • Sliding-filament model: filaments slide past each other, producing overlap.
      Based on interaction between actin of thin filaments and myosin of the thick filaments.
    • Fig. 50-27-1
      Thick filament
      Thinfilaments
      Thin filament
      Myosin head (low-energy configuration
      ATP
      Thickfilament
    • Fig. 50-27-2
      Thick filament
      Thinfilaments
      Thin filament
      Myosin head (low-energy configuration
      ATP
      Thickfilament
      Myosin binding sites
      Actin
      ADP
      Myosin head (high-energy configuration
      P i
    • Fig. 50-27-3
      Thick filament
      Thinfilaments
      Thin filament
      Myosin head (low-energy configuration
      ATP
      Thickfilament
      Myosin binding sites
      Actin
      ADP
      Myosin head (high-energy configuration
      P i
      ADP
      Cross-bridge
      P i
    • Fig. 50-27-4
      Thick filament
      Thinfilaments
      Thin filament
      Myosin head (low-energy configuration
      ATP
      ATP
      Thickfilament
      Myosin binding sites
      Thin filament movestoward center of sarcomere.
      Actin
      ADP
      Myosin head (low-energy configuration
      Myosin head (high-energy configuration
      P i
      ADP
      ADP
      +
      P i
      Cross-bridge
      P i
    • Skeletal muscle fiber contract only when stimulated by a motor neuron.
      Muscle at rest, myosin-binding sites on thin filament blocked by protein tropomyosin.
    • For a muscle fiber to contract, myosin-binding sites must be uncovered
      This occurs when calcium ions (Ca2+) bind to a set of regulatory proteins, the troponin complex
      Muscle fiber contracts when the concentration of Ca2+ is high; muscle fiber contraction stops when the concentration of Ca2+ is low
    • The synaptic terminal of the motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
      Acetylcholine depolarizes the muscle, causing it to produce an action potential
    • Action potentials travel to the interior of the muscle fiber along transverse (T) tubules
    • The action potential along T tubules causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to release Ca2+
    • The Ca2+ binds to the troponin complex on the thin filaments
    • This binding exposes myosin-binding sites and allows the cross-bridge cycle to proceed
    • Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
      Skeletal muscle fibers can be classified
      As oxidative or glycolytic fibers, by the source of ATP
      As fast-twitch or slow-twitch fibers, by the speed of muscle contraction
    • Oxidative and Glycolytic Fibers
      Oxidative fibers rely on aerobic respiration to generate ATP
      These fibers have many mitochondria, a rich blood supply, and much myoglobin
      Myoglobin is a protein that binds oxygen more tightly than hemoglobin does
    • Glycolytic fibers use glycolysis as their primary source of ATP
      Glycolytic fibers have less myoglobin than oxidative fibers, and tire more easily
      In poultry and fish, light meat is composed of glycolytic fibers, while dark meat is composed of oxidative fibers
    • Fast-Twitch and Slow-Twitch Fibers
      Slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly, but sustain longer contractions
      All slow twitch fibers are oxidative
      Fast-twitch fibers contract more rapidly, but sustain shorter contractions
      Fast-twitch fibers can be either glycolytic or oxidative
    • Most skeletal muscles contain both slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles in varying ratios