Chapter 46

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  • 1. Animal Reproduction Chapter 46
  • 2. How does the human reproductive system work? Mammals, including humans produce gametes in paired organs called gonads In males: testes (singular = testis); produce sperm In females: ovaries; produce eggs
  • 3. Human male reproductive tract See Fig. 46.10
  • 4. Human male reproductive tract Testes (in scrotum) Sperm Testosterone See Fig. 46.10
  • 5. Human male reproductive tract Accessory structures Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland (together produce semen) See Fig. 46.10
  • 6. Human male reproductive tract Accessory structures Epididymis (sperm storage) See Fig. 46.10
  • 7. Human male reproductive tract Accessory structures Vas deferens (connects testes to urethra) See Fig. 46.10
  • 8. Testes produce sperm & testosterone Sperm production occurs in seminiferous tubules See Fig. 46.12
  • 9. Testes produce sperm & testosterone Sperm production occurs in seminiferous tubules At puberty, testosterone production begins in interstitial cells See Fig. 46.12
  • 10. Testes produce sperm & testosterone Sperm production occurs in seminiferous tubules Sertoli cells regulate sperm production & nourish developing sperm See Fig. 46.12
  • 11. Testes produce sperm & testosterone Sperm production occurs in seminiferous tubules Spermatozoa are produced by spermatogonia See Fig. 46.12
  • 12. SpermatogenesisSpermatogonia (2n) either undergo mitosis to produce new spermatogonia, or undergo meiosis to produce sperm (1n) See Fig. 46.12
  • 13. Human sperm – almost no cytoplasm; carries male DNA to egg DNA Head Nucleus – DNA Acrosome – Enzymes See Fig. 46.12
  • 14. Human sperm – almost no cytoplasm; carries male DNA to egg DNA Head Nucleus – DNA Acrosome – Enzymes Midpiece Mitochondria – Energy See Fig. 46.12
  • 15. Human sperm – almost no cytoplasm; carries male DNA to egg DNA Head Nucleus – DNA Acrosome – Enzymes Midpiece Mitochondria – Energy Tail Flagellum – Propeller See Fig. 46.12
  • 16. Human female reproductive tract See Fig. 46.9
  • 17. Human female reproductive tract Fallopian tubes, a.k.a. uterine tubes, a.k.a. oviducts Ovaries Eggs Estrogen / progesterone Accessory structures receive & move sperm to egg & nourish developing embryo Vagina – receives sperm Fallopian tubes – site of fertilization Uterus – site of development of embryo fimbriae ovary uterus cervix vagina See Fig. 46.9
  • 18. Human female reproductive tract Fallopian tubes, a.k.a. uterine tubes, a.k.a. oviducts Ovaries Eggs Estrogen / progesterone Accessory structures receive & move sperm to egg & nourish developing embryo Vagina – receives sperm Fallopian tubes – sites of fertilization Uterus – site of development of embryo fimbriae ovary uterus cervix vagina See Fig. 46.9
  • 19. Oogenesis – formation of egg cells via meiosis It has long been thought that women have all their primary oocytes (halted at Prophase of Meiosis I) by the time they are born See Fig. 46.11 & 46.13
  • 20. Monthly menstrual cycle coordinates: 1) maturation of several eggs2) release of one egg3) preparation of the uterine lining for possible pregnancy
  • 21. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle:Hormones from the brain’s “master gland” (pituitary) initiate development of egg-bearing follicles in the ovary
  • 22. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle:Estrogen produced by egg-bearing follicles stimulates the growth of the uterine lining
  • 23. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle:Ovulation occurs on about day 14; remnants of ruptured follicle become the corpus luteum, which produces bothestrogensandprogesterone
  • 24. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle:Combination of estrogens + progesterone: 1) Inhibits hormone release from pituitary, preventing development of more follicles2) Stimulates further growth of uterine lining
  • 25. Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle:If pregnancy does not begin: 1) The corpus luteum breaks down2) Estrogens & progesterone levels fall3) Uterine lining is shed as menstrual flow
  • 26. Fertilization may lead to pregnancy…Sperm deposited in the vagina during copulation swim through the uterus into the Fallopian tubes, where they may encounter an egg Sperm Sperm Sperm Sperm Oocyte (egg)
  • 27. Fertilization may lead to pregnancy…Sperm release enzymes that break down the barriers around the egg (corona radiata and zona pelucida) oocyte Zona pellucida – jelly-like layer around egg Corona radiata – layer of accessory cells around egg
  • 28. Fertilization may lead to pregnancy…Fusion of the nuclei of an egg and one sperm (fertilization) produces a zygote oocyte Zona pellucida – jelly-like layer around egg Corona radiata – layer of accessory cells around egg
  • 29. If pregnancy begins, the embryo secretes a hormone that prevents the breakdown of the corpus luteum
  • 30. Corpus luteum continues to produce estrogens and progesterone, so the uterine lining continues to grow and develop
  • 31. Most pregnancy tests detect the presence of a hormone produced by the embryo – and present in the woman’s urine
  • 32. Fetal development… The inner wall of the uterus together with embryonic tissues become the placenta, which transfers oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes between the mother and the developing fetus Maternal arteries Maternal veins Placenta Maternal portion of placenta Umbilical cord Fetal capillaries Fetal portion of placenta (chorion) Maternal blood pools Uterus Umbilical cord Figure 46.16
  • 33. Two basic reproductive modes Asexual reproduction Requires only one parent Offspring are genetically identical to parent and to each other Sexual reproduction Requires meiotic cell division in two parents Produces genetically variable offspring, with different combinations of parental genes
  • 34. Asexual reproduction: budding Occurs in sponges and some cnidarians (e.g., Hydra) Miniature animal begins as a bud on an adult, then becomes independent Budding in Hydra Adult Bud
  • 35. Asexual reproduction: fission followed by regeneration Occurs in some cnidarians, flatworms and some segmented worms (annelids) Body splits into two or more pieces Each piece regenerates any missing body parts Fission in asea anemone
  • 36. Asexual reproduction:fission followed by regeneration Grows new tail Anterior half with no tail Posterior half with no head Flatwormcinches in two Grows new head
  • 37. Asexual reproduction:parthenogenesis In rotifers, as well as some insects, fish, amphibians and reptiles the eggs produced by females develop directly into adults without being fertilized by sperm This process is called parthenogenesis
  • 38. Aphid Babyaphid
  • 39. Whiptail lizard
  • 40. Queen bee (fertile female; diploid) Worker bee (sterile female; diploid) Drone (fertile male; haploid)
  • 41. Sexual reproduction requires fusion of sperm & egg
  • 42. Sexual reproduction in animals Requires the production of gametes (egg and sperm), which are haploid (1n) cells Gametes are produced from diploid (2n) cells by meiosis Fusion of egg and sperm (fertilization) produces a diploid zygote, which divides by mitosis and develops into new diploid animal
  • 43. Some organisms are hermaphrodites; they produce both eggs and sperm & can self-fertilize E.g., tapeworm
  • 44. Some hermaphrodites cannot self-fertilize and so must exchange sperm to fertilize each other’s eggs E.g., some snails
  • 45. Most animals are dioecious, with separate females and males Female mallard Male mallard
  • 46. Most animals are dioecious, with separate females and males Females produce large, non-motile eggs, that contain food reserves Males produce small, motile sperm, with no food reserves
  • 47. External fertilization: Spawning Union of sperm and egg takes place outside the bodies of the parents External fertilization is common in animals that live in water Release of sperm and eggs into the water is called spawning Release is often synchronized using environmental cues (e.g., seasons, tides)
  • 48. Grunion spawning
  • 49. Coral spawning
  • 50. External fertilization: Amplexus Male frogs mount females in a pose called amplexus Female releases eggs and male then releases a cloud of sperm over them
  • 51. Internal fertilization Important adaptation to life on land Fertilization occurs inside female’s body Copulation: Male deposits sperm directly into female’s reproductive tract
  • 52. Internal fertilization Damselflies mating