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Chapter 45 Textbook Presentation

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  • Figure 45.1 What role do hormones play in transforming a caterpillar into a butterfly? For the Discovery Video Endocrine System, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • For the Discovery Video Endocrine System, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 45.2 Intercellular communication by secreted molecules
  • Figure 45.2 Intercellular communication by secreted molecules
  • Figure 45.2 Intercellular communication by secreted molecules
  • Figure 45.3 Hormones differ in form and solubility
  • Figure 45.4 Where in the cell is the receptor for melanocyte-stimulating hormone?
  • Figure 45.5 Receptor location varies with hormone type
  • Figure 45.5 Receptor location varies with hormone type
  • Figure 45.6 Cell-surface hormone receptors trigger signal transduction
  • Figure 45.6 Cell-surface hormone receptors trigger signal transduction
  • Figure 45.7 Steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression
  • Figure 45.7 Steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression
  • Figure 45.8 One hormone, different effects
  • Figure 45.8 One hormone, different effects
  • Figure 45.9 Specialized role of a hormone in frog metamorphosis
  • Figure 45.9 Specialized role of a hormone in frog metamorphosis
  • Figure 45.9 Specialized role of a hormone in frog metamorphosis
  • Figure 45.10 Major human endocrine glands
  • Figure 45.11 A simple endocrine pathway
  • Figure 45.12 Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon
  • Figure 45.12 Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon
  • Figure 45.12 Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon
  • Figure 45.12 Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon
  • Figure 45.12 Maintenance of glucose homeostasis by insulin and glucagon
  • Figure 45.13 Hormonal regulation of insect development
  • Figure 45.13 Hormonal regulation of insect development
  • Figure 45.13 Hormonal regulation of insect development
  • Figure 45.14 Endocrine glands in the human brain
  • Table 45.1
  • Table 45.1
  • Table 45.1
  • Table 45.1
  • Table 45.1
  • Figure 45.15 Production and release of posterior pituitary hormones
  • Figure 45.16 A simple neurohormone pathway
  • Figure 45.17 Production and release of anterior pituitary hormones
  • Figure 45.18 A hormone cascade pathway
  • Figure 45.18 A hormone cascade pathway
  • Figure 45.18 A hormone cascade pathway
  • Figure 45.19 Thyroid scan
  • Figure 45.20 The roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in regulating blood calcium levels in mammals
  • Figure 45.20 The roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in regulating blood calcium levels in mammals
  • Figure 45.21 Stress and the adrenal gland
  • Figure 45.21 Stress and the adrenal gland
  • Figure 45.21a Stress and the adrenal gland
  • Figure 45.21b Stress and the adrenal gland
  • Figure 45.22 What role do hormones play in making a mammal male or female?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 45 Hormones and the Endocrine System
    • 2. Overview: The Body’s Long-Distance Regulators
      • Animal hormones are chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system and communicate regulatory messages within the body
      • Hormones reach all parts of the body, but only target cells are equipped to respond
      • Insect metamorphosis is regulated by hormones
    • 3.
      • Two systems coordinate communication throughout the body: the endocrine system and the nervous system
      • The endocrine system secretes hormones that coordinate slower but longer-acting responses including reproduction, development, energy metabolism, growth, and behavior
      • The nervous system conveys high-speed electrical signals along specialized cells called neurons; these signals regulate other cells
    • 4. Fig. 45-1
    • 5. Fig. 45-UN1
    • 6. Concept 45.1: Hormones and other signaling molecules bind to target receptors, triggering specific response pathways
      • Chemical signals bind to receptor proteins on target cells
      • Only target cells respond to the signal
    • 7. Types of Secreted Signaling Molecules
      • Secreted chemical signals include
        • Hormones
        • Local regulators
        • Neurotransmitters
        • Neurohormones
        • Pheromones
    • 8. Hormones
      • Endocrine signals (hormones) are secreted into extracellular fluids and travel via the bloodstream
      • Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete hormones directly into surrounding fluid
      • Hormones mediate responses to environmental stimuli and regulate growth, development, and reproduction
    • 9. Fig. 45-2 Blood vessel Response Response Response Response (a) Endocrine signaling (b) Paracrine signaling (c) Autocrine signaling (d) Synaptic signaling Neuron Neurosecretory cell (e) Neuroendocrine signaling Blood vessel Synapse Response
    • 10.
      • Exocrine glands have ducts and secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities (for example, tear ducts)
    • 11. Local Regulators
      • Local regulators are chemical signals that travel over short distances by diffusion
      • Local regulators help regulate blood pressure, nervous system function, and reproduction
      • Local regulators are divided into two types
        • Paracrine signals act on cells near the secreting cell
        • Autocrine signals act on the secreting cell itself
    • 12. Fig. 45-2a Blood vessel Response Response Response (a) Endocrine signaling (b) Paracrine signaling (c) Autocrine signaling
    • 13. Neurotransmitters and Neurohormones
      • Neurons (nerve cells) contact target cells at synapses
      • At synapses, neurons often secrete chemical signals called neurotransmitters that diffuse a short distance to bind to receptors on the target cell
      • Neurotransmitters play a role in sensation, memory, cognition, and movement
    • 14. Fig. 45-2b Response (d) Synaptic signaling Neuron Neurosecretory cell (e) Neuroendocrine signaling Blood vessel Synapse Response
    • 15.
      • Neurohormones are a class of hormones that originate from neurons in the brain and diffuse through the bloodstream
    • 16. Pheromones
      • Pheromones are chemical signals that are released from the body and used to communicate with other individuals in the species
      • Pheromones mark trails to food sources, warn of predators, and attract potential mates
    • 17. Chemical Classes of Hormones
      • Three major classes of molecules function as hormones in vertebrates:
        • Polypeptides (proteins and peptides)
        • Amines derived from amino acids
        • Steroid hormones
    • 18.
      • Lipid-soluble hormones (steroid hormones) pass easily through cell membranes, while water-soluble hormones (polypeptides and amines) do not
      • The solubility of a hormone correlates with the location of receptors inside or on the surface of target cells
    • 19. Fig. 45-3 Water-soluble Lipid-soluble Steroid: Cortisol Polypeptide: Insulin Amine: Epinephrine Amine: Thyroxine 0.8 nm
    • 20. Hormone Receptor Location: Scientific Inquiry
      • In the 1960s, researchers studied the accumulation of radioactive steroid hormones in rat tissue
      • These hormones accumulated only in target cells that were responsive to the hormones
      • These experiments led to the hypothesis that receptors for the steroid hormones are located inside the target cells
      • Further studies have confirmed that receptors for lipid-soluble hormones such as steroids are located inside cells
    • 21.
      • Researchers hypothesized that receptors for water-soluble hormones would be located on the cell surface
      • They injected a water-soluble hormone into the tissues of frogs
      • The hormone triggered a response only when it was allowed to bind to cell surface receptors
      • This confirmed that water-soluble receptors were on the cell surface
    • 22. Fig. 45-4 MSH injected into melanocyte Nucleus Melanosomes do not disperse MSH injected into interstitial fluid (blue) Melanosomes disperse Melanocyte with melanosomes (black dots) RESULTS
    • 23. Cellular Response Pathways
      • Water and lipid soluble hormones differ in their paths through a body
      • Water-soluble hormones are secreted by exocytosis, travel freely in the bloodstream, and bind to cell-surface receptors
      • Lipid-soluble hormones diffuse across cell membranes, travel in the bloodstream bound to transport proteins, and diffuse through the membrane of target cells
    • 24.
      • Signaling by any of these hormones involves three key events:
        • Reception
        • Signal transduction
        • Response
    • 25. Fig. 45-5-1 NUCLEUS Signal receptor (a) (b) TARGET CELL Signal receptor Transport protein Water- soluble hormone Fat-soluble hormone
    • 26. Fig. 45-5-2 Signal receptor TARGET CELL Signal receptor Transport protein Water- soluble hormone Fat-soluble hormone Gene regulation Cytoplasmic response Gene regulation Cytoplasmic response OR (a) NUCLEUS (b)
    • 27. Pathway for Water-Soluble Hormones
      • Binding of a hormone to its receptor initiates a signal transduction pathway leading to responses in the cytoplasm, enzyme activation, or a change in gene expression
      Animation: Water-Soluble Hormone
    • 28.
      • The hormone epinephrine has multiple effects in mediating the body’s response to short-term stress
      • Epinephrine binds to receptors on the plasma membrane of liver cells
      • This triggers the release of messenger molecules that activate enzymes and result in the release of glucose into the bloodstream
    • 29. Fig. 45-6-1 cAMP Second messenger Adenylyl cyclase G protein-coupled receptor ATP GTP G protein Epinephrine
    • 30. Fig. 45-6-2 cAMP Second messenger Adenylyl cyclase G protein-coupled receptor ATP GTP G protein Epinephrine Inhibition of glycogen synthesis Promotion of glycogen breakdown Protein kinase A
    • 31. Pathway for Lipid-Soluble Hormones
      • The response to a lipid-soluble hormone is usually a change in gene expression
      • Steroids, thyroid hormones, and the hormonal form of vitamin D enter target cells and bind to protein receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus
      • Protein-receptor complexes then act as transcription factors in the nucleus, regulating transcription of specific genes
      Animation: Lipid-Soluble Hormone
    • 32. Fig. 45-7-1 Hormone (estradiol) Hormone-receptor complex Plasma membrane Estradiol (estrogen) receptor
    • 33. Fig. 45-7-2 Hormone (estradiol) Hormone-receptor complex Plasma membrane Estradiol (estrogen) receptor DNA Vitellogenin mRNA for vitellogenin
    • 34. Multiple Effects of Hormones
      • The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have
        • Different receptors for the hormone
        • Different signal transduction pathways
        • Different proteins for carrying out the response
      • A hormone can also have different effects in different species
    • 35. Fig. 45-8-1 Glycogen deposits  receptor Vessel dilates. Epinephrine (a) Liver cell Epinephrine  receptor Glycogen breaks down and glucose is released. (b) Skeletal muscle blood vessel Same receptors but different intracellular proteins (not shown)
    • 36. Fig. 45-8-2 Glycogen deposits  receptor Vessel dilates. Epinephrine (a) Liver cell Epinephrine  receptor Glycogen breaks down and glucose is released. (b) Skeletal muscle blood vessel Same receptors but different intracellular proteins (not shown) Epinephrine  receptor Different receptors Epinephrine  receptor Vessel constricts. (c) Intestinal blood vessel
    • 37. Fig. 45-9 (a) (b)
    • 38. Fig. 45-9a (a)
    • 39. Fig. 45-9b (b)
    • 40. Signaling by Local Regulators
      • In paracrine signaling, nonhormonal chemical signals called local regulators elicit responses in nearby target cells
      • Types of local regulators:
        • Cytokines and growth factors
        • Nitric oxide (NO)
        • Prostaglandins
    • 41.
      • Prostaglandins help regulate aggregation of platelets, an early step in formation of blood clots
    • 42. Concept 45.2: Negative feedback and antagonistic hormone pairs are common features of the endocrine system
      • Hormones are assembled into regulatory pathways
    • 43. Fig. 45-10 Major endocrine glands: Adrenal glands Hypothalamus Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Pancreas Kidney Ovaries Testes Organs containing endocrine cells: Thymus Heart Liver Stomach Kidney Small intestine
    • 44. Simple Hormone Pathways
      • Hormones are released from an endocrine cell, travel through the bloodstream, and interact with the receptor or a target cell to cause a physiological response
    • 45. Fig. 45-11 Pathway Example Stimulus Low pH in duodenum S cells of duodenum secrete secretin ( ) Endocrine cell Blood vessel Pancreas Target cells Response Bicarbonate release Negative feedback –
    • 46.
      • A negative feedback loop inhibits a response by reducing the initial stimulus
      • Negative feedback regulates many hormonal pathways involved in homeostasis
    • 47. Insulin and Glucagon: Control of Blood Glucose
      • Insulin and glucagon are antagonistic hormones that help maintain glucose homeostasis
      • The pancreas has clusters of endocrine cells called islets of Langerhans with alpha cells that produce glucagon and beta cells that produce insulin
    • 48. Fig. 45-12-1 Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) Insulin Beta cells of pancreas release insulin into the blood. STIMULUS: Blood glucose level rises.
    • 49. Fig. 45-12-2 Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) Insulin Beta cells of pancreas release insulin into the blood. STIMULUS: Blood glucose level rises. Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen. Blood glucose level declines. Body cells take up more glucose.
    • 50. Fig. 45-12-3 Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) Glucagon STIMULUS: Blood glucose level falls. Alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon.
    • 51. Fig. 45-12-4 Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) Glucagon STIMULUS: Blood glucose level falls. Alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon. Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose. Blood glucose level rises.
    • 52. Fig. 45-12-5 Homeostasis: Blood glucose level (about 90 mg/100 mL) Glucagon STIMULUS: Blood glucose level falls. Alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon. Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose. Blood glucose level rises. STIMULUS: Blood glucose level rises. Beta cells of pancreas release insulin into the blood. Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen. Blood glucose level declines. Body cells take up more glucose. Insulin
    • 53. Target Tissues for Insulin and Glucagon
      • Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by
        • Promoting the cellular uptake of glucose
        • Slowing glycogen breakdown in the liver
        • Promoting fat storage
    • 54.
      • Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by
        • Stimulating conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
        • Stimulating breakdown of fat and protein into glucose
    • 55. Diabetes Mellitus
      • Diabetes mellitus is perhaps the best-known endocrine disorder
      • It is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues
      • It is marked by elevated blood glucose levels
    • 56.
      • Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells
      • Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent) involves insulin deficiency or reduced response of target cells due to change in insulin receptors
    • 57. Concept 45.3: The endocrine and nervous systems act individually and together in regulating animal physiology
      • Signals from the nervous system initiate and regulate endocrine signals
    • 58. Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Invertebrates
      • In insects, molting and development are controlled by a combination of hormones:
        • A brain hormone stimulates release of ecdysone from the prothoracic glands
        • Juvenile hormone promotes retention of larval characteristics
        • Ecdysone promotes molting (in the presence of juvenile hormone) and development (in the absence of juvenile hormone) of adult characteristics
    • 59. Fig. 45-13-1 Ecdysone Prothoracic gland Brain PTTH EARLY LARVA Neurosecretory cells Corpus cardiacum Corpus allatum Juvenile hormone (JH)
    • 60. Fig. 45-13-2 Ecdysone Brain PTTH Juvenile hormone (JH) EARLY LARVA Neurosecretory cells Corpus cardiacum Corpus allatum LATER LARVA Prothoracic gland
    • 61. Fig. 45-13-3 Ecdysone Brain PTTH EARLY LARVA Neurosecretory cells Corpus cardiacum Corpus allatum LATER LARVA PUPA ADULT Low JH Juvenile hormone (JH) Prothoracic gland
    • 62. Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Vertebrates
      • The hypothalamus receives information from the nervous system and initiates responses through the endocrine system
      • Attached to the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland composed of the posterior pituitary and anterior pituitary
    • 63.
      • The posterior pituitary stores and secretes hormones that are made in the hypothalamus
      • The anterior pituitary makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus
    • 64. Fig. 45-14 Spinal cord Posterior pituitary Cerebellum Pineal gland Anterior pituitary Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Thalamus Cerebrum
    • 65. Table 45-1
    • 66. Table 45-1a
    • 67. Table 45-1b
    • 68. Table 45-1c
    • 69. Table 45-1d
    • 70. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
      • The two hormones released from the posterior pituitary act directly on nonendocrine tissues
    • 71. Fig. 45-15 Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus Hypothalamus Axon HORMONE Oxytocin ADH Kidney tubules TARGET Mammary glands, uterine muscles
    • 72.
      • Oxytocin induces uterine contractions and the release of milk
      • Suckling sends a message to the hypothalamus via the nervous system to release oxytocin, which further stimulates the milk glands
      • This is an example of positive feedback , where the stimulus leads to an even greater response
      • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) enhances water reabsorption in the kidneys
    • 73. Fig. 45-16 Suckling Pathway Stimulus Hypothalamus/ posterior pituitary Positive feedback Example Sensory neuron Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel Posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin ( ) Target cells Response Smooth muscle in breasts Milk release +
    • 74. Anterior Pituitary Hormones
      • Hormone production in the anterior pituitary is controlled by releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus
      • For example, the production of thyrotropin releasing hormone ( TRH ) in the hypothalamus stimulates secretion of the thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ) from the anterior pituitary
    • 75. Fig. 45-17 Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus HORMONE TARGET Posterior pituitary Portal vessels Endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary Pituitary hormones Tropic effects only: FSH LH TSH ACTH Nontropic effects only: Prolactin MSH Nontropic and tropic effects: GH Testes or ovaries Thyroid FSH and LH TSH Adrenal cortex Mammary glands ACTH Prolactin MSH GH Melanocytes Liver, bones, other tissues
    • 76. Hormone Cascade Pathways
      • A hormone can stimulate the release of a series of other hormones, the last of which activates a nonendocrine target cell; this is called a hormone cascade pathway
      • The release of thyroid hormone results from a hormone cascade pathway involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and thyroid gland
      • Hormone cascade pathways are usually regulated by negative feedback
    • 77. Fig. 45-18-1 Cold Pathway Stimulus Blood vessel Example Sensory neuron Hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH ) Neurosecretory cell
    • 78. Fig. 45-18-2 Cold Pathway Stimulus Hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH ) Example Sensory neuron Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel + Anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin )
    • 79. Fig. 45-18-3 Cold Pathway Stimulus Hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH ) Negative feedback Example Sensory neuron Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel Anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin ) Target cells Response Body tissues Increased cellular metabolism – Thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormone (T 3 and T 4 ) –
    • 80. Tropic Hormones
      • A tropic hormone regulates the function of endocrine cells or glands
      • The four strictly tropic hormones are
        • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
        • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
        • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
        • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • 81. Nontropic Hormones
      • Nontropic hormones target nonendocrine tissues
      • Nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary are
        • Prolactin (PRL)
        • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • 82.
      • Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals but has diverse effects in different vertebrates
      • MSH influences skin pigmentation in some vertebrates and fat metabolism in mammals
    • 83. Growth Hormone
      • Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and has tropic and nontropic actions
      • It promotes growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects
      • It stimulates production of growth factors
      • An excess of GH can cause gigantism, while a lack of GH can cause dwarfism
    • 84.
      • Endocrine signaling regulates metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior
      Concept 45.4: Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior
    • 85. Thyroid Hormone: Control of Metabolism and Development
      • The thyroid gland consists of two lobes on the ventral surface of the trachea
      • It produces two iodine-containing hormones: triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 )
    • 86.
      • Thyroid hormones stimulate metabolism and influence development and maturation
      • Hyperthyroidism, excessive secretion of thyroid hormones, causes high body temperature, weight loss, irritability, and high blood pressure
      • Graves’ disease is a form of hyperthyroidism in humans
      • Hypothyroidism, low secretion of thyroid hormones, causes weight gain, lethargy, and intolerance to cold
    • 87. Fig. 45-19 Normal iodine uptake High level iodine uptake
    • 88.
      • Proper thyroid function requires dietary iodine for hormone production
    • 89. Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: Control of Blood Calcium
      • Two antagonistic hormones regulate the homeostasis of calcium (Ca 2+ ) in the blood of mammals
        • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released by the parathyroid glands
        • Calcitonin is released by the thyroid gland
    • 90. Fig. 45-20-1 PTH Parathyroid gland (behind thyroid) STIMULUS: Falling blood Ca 2+ level Homeostasis: Blood Ca 2+ level (about 10 mg/100 mL)
    • 91. Fig. 45-20-2 PTH Parathyroid gland (behind thyroid) STIMULUS: Falling blood Ca 2+ level Homeostasis: Blood Ca 2+ level (about 10 mg/100 mL) Blood Ca 2+ level rises. Stimulates Ca 2+ uptake in kidneys Stimulates Ca 2+ release from bones Increases Ca 2+ uptake in intestines Active vitamin D
    • 92.
      • PTH increases the level of blood Ca 2+
        • It releases Ca 2+ from bone and stimulates reabsorption of Ca 2+ in the kidneys
        • It also has an indirect effect, stimulating the kidneys to activate vitamin D, which promotes intestinal uptake of Ca 2+ from food
      • Calcitonin decreases the level of blood Ca 2+
        • It stimulates Ca 2+ deposition in bones and secretion by kidneys
    • 93. Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress
      • The adrenal glands are adjacent to the kidneys
      • Each adrenal gland actually consists of two glands: the adrenal medulla (inner portion) and adrenal cortex (outer portion)
    • 94. Catecholamines from the Adrenal Medulla
      • The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
      • These hormones are members of a class of compounds called catecholamines
      • They are secreted in response to stress-activated impulses from the nervous system
      • They mediate various fight-or-flight responses
    • 95.
      • Epinephrine and norepinephrine
        • Trigger the release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood
        • Increase oxygen delivery to body cells
        • Direct blood toward heart, brain, and skeletal muscles, and away from skin, digestive system, and kidneys
      • The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine occurs in response to nerve signals from the hypothalamus
    • 96. Fig. 45-21 Stress Adrenal gland Nerve cell Nerve signals Releasing hormone Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Blood vessel ACTH Adrenal cortex Spinal cord Adrenal medulla Kidney (a) Short-term stress response (b) Long-term stress response Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine: 2. Increased blood pressure 3. Increased breathing rate 4. Increased metabolic rate 1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose 5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive, excretory, and reproductive system activity Effects of mineralocorticoids: Effects of glucocorticoids: 1. Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys 2. Increased blood volume and blood pressure 2. Possible suppression of immune system 1. Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose
    • 97. Fig. 45-21a Stress Adrenal gland Nerve cell Nerve signals Releasing hormone Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Blood vessel ACTH Adrenal cortex Spinal cord Adrenal medulla Kidney
    • 98. Fig. 45-21b (a) Short-term stress response Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine: 2. Increased blood pressure 3. Increased breathing rate 4. Increased metabolic rate 1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose 5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive, excretory, and reproductive system activity Adrenal gland Adrenal medulla Kidney
    • 99. Steroid Hormones from the Adrenal Cortex
      • The adrenal cortex releases a family of steroids called corticosteroids in response to stress
      • These hormones are triggered by a hormone cascade pathway via the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
      • Humans produce two types of corticosteroids: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
    • 100. Fig. 45-21c (b) Long-term stress response Effects of mineralocorticoids: Effects of glucocorticoids: 1. Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys 2. Increased blood volume and blood pressure 2. Possible suppression of immune system 1. Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose Adrenal gland Kidney Adrenal cortex
    • 101.
      • Glucocorticoids , such as cortisol, influence glucose metabolism and the immune system
      • Mineralocorticoids , such as aldosterone, affect salt and water balance
      • The adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of steroid hormones that function as sex hormones
    • 102. Gonadal Sex Hormones
      • The gonads, testes and ovaries, produce most of the sex hormones: androgens, estrogens, and progestins
      • All three sex hormones are found in both males and females, but in different amounts
    • 103.
      • The testes primarily synthesize androgens , mainly testosterone , which stimulate development and maintenance of the male reproductive system
      • Testosterone causes an increase in muscle and bone mass and is often taken as a supplement to cause muscle growth, which carries health risks
    • 104. Fig. 45-22 Embryonic gonad removed Chromosome Set Appearance of Genitals XY (male) XX (female) Male Female Female Female No surgery RESULTS
    • 105.
      • Estrogens , most importantly estradiol , are responsible for maintenance of the female reproductive system and the development of female secondary sex characteristics
      • In mammals, progestins, which include progesterone , are primarily involved in preparing and maintaining the uterus
      • Synthesis of the sex hormones is controlled by FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
    • 106. Melatonin and Biorhythms
      • The pineal gland , located in the brain, secretes melatonin
      • Light/dark cycles control release of melatonin
      • Primary functions of melatonin appear to relate to biological rhythms associated with reproduction
    • 107. Fig. 45-UN2 Pathway Example Stimulus Low blood glucose Pancreas secretes glucagon ( ) Endocrine cell Blood vessel Liver Target cells Response Glycogen breakdown, glucose release into blood Negative feedback –
    • 108. Fig. 45-UN3 Patient X No drug Normal Dexamethasone Cortisol level in blood
    • 109. Fig. 45-UN4
    • 110. You should now be able to:
      • Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: hormones and local regulators, paracrine and autocrine signals
      • Describe the evidence that steroid hormones have intracellular receptors, while water-soluble hormones have cell-surface receptors
      • Explain how the antagonistic hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism
      • Distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
    • 111.
      • Explain how the hypothalamus and the pituitary glands interact and how they coordinate the endocrine system
      • Explain the role of tropic hormones in coordinating endocrine signaling throughout the body
      • List and describe the functions of hormones released by the following: anterior and posterior pituitary lobes, thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, gonads, pineal gland

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