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Chapter 35 - Plant Structure

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Chapter 35 - Plant Structure Chapter 35 - Plant Structure Presentation Transcript

  • Plant AnatomyAP Biology 2006-2007
  • Basic plant anatomy 1  root  root tip  root hairsAP Biology
  • Plant Body Hierarchy  Tissue  Cells with a common function  Organ  3 basic organs  Roots  Stems  LeavesAP Biology
  • 1 Roots  Roots anchor plant in soil, absorb minerals & water, & store food  fibrous roots (1)  mat of thin roots that spread out  monocots  tap roots (2)  1 large vertical root  also produces many small lateral, or branch roots  dicots  root hairs (3) 2  increase absorptive surface areaAP Biology 3
  • Basic plant anatomy 2  root  root tip  root hairs  shoot (stem)  nodes  internodes  buds  terminal or apical buds  axillary buds  flower buds & flowersAP Biology
  • Modified shoots stolons (strawberries) rhizome (ginger)AP Biology tuber (potato) bulb (onion)
  • Basic plant anatomy 3  root  root tip  root hairs  shoot (stem)  nodes  internodes  buds  terminal or apical buds  axillary buds  flower buds & flowers  leaves  mesophyll tissue  veins (vascular bundles)AP Biology
  • Leaves  Function of leaves  photosynthesis  energy production  CHO production  gas exchange  transpiration simple vs. compoundAP Biology
  • Modified leaves tendrils (peas) spines (cacti)AP Biology succulent leaves colored leaves (poinsetta)
  • AP Biology
  • Interdependent systems  Both systems depend on the other  roots depend on sugars sugars produced by photosynthetic leaves  shoots depend on water & minerals absorbed from the soil by roots water & mineralsAP Biology
  • Plant TISSUES  Dermal  epidermis (―skin‖ of plant)  single layer of tightly packed cells that covers & protects plant  Ground  bulk of plant tissue  photosynthetic mesophyll, storage  Vascular  transport system in shoots & roots  xylem & phloemAP Biology
  • Plant CELL types in plant tissues  Parenchyma  ―typical‖ plant cells = least specialized  photosynthetic cells, storage cells  tissue of leaves, stem, fruit, storage roots  Collenchyma  unevenly thickened primary walls If I’d only  support had triplets!  Sclerenchyma  very thick, ―woody‖ secondary walls  support  rigid cells that can’t elongate  dead at functional maturityAP Biology
  • Parenchyma  Parenchyma cells are unspecialized, thin, flexible & carry out many metabolic functions  all other cell types in plants develop from parenchymaAP Biology
  • Collenchyma  Collenchyma cells have thicker primary walls & provide support  help support without restraining growth  remain alive in maturity the strings in celery stalksAP Biology are collenchyma
  • Sclerenchyma  Thick, rigid cell wall  lignin (wood)  cannot elongate  mostly dead at maturity  Cells for support  xylem vessels  xylem tracheids  fibers  rope fibers  sclereids  nutshells  seed coats  grittiness in pearsAP Biology
  • vessel elements Vascular tissue  Xylem  move water & minerals up from roots vessel  dead cells at functional maturity element  only cell walls remain  need empty pipes to efficiently move H2O  transpirational pull dead cells Aaaah… Structure–Function again!tracheids AP Biology
  • Phloem: food-conducting cells  carry sugars & nutrients throughout plant sieve tubecompanion cell sieve plate plasmodesmataAP Biology living cells
  • Phloem: food-conducting cells  sieve tube elements & companion cellsAP Biology
  • Aaaah… Structure–Function Phloem again!  Living cells at functional maturity  cell membrane, cytoplasm  control of diffusion  lose their nucleus, ribosomes & vacuole  more room for specialized transport of liquid food (sucrose)  Cells  sieve tubes  sieve plates — end walls — have pores to facilitate flow of fluid between cells  companion cells  nucleated cells connected to the sieve-tube  help sieve tubesAP Biology
  • Vascular tissue in stems dicot monocot trees & shrubs grasses & liliesAP Biology collect annual rings
  • Vascular tissue in roots: dicotphloem xylem AP Biology
  • Vascular tissue in roots: monocot xylem phloemAP Biology
  • Putting it all together  Obtaining raw materials  sunlight  leaves = solar collectors  CO2  stomates = gas exchange  H2O  uptake from roots  nutrients  uptake from rootsAP Biology
  • Plant Growth  Apical meristem  Growth in length  Primary  Lateral meristem  Growth in diameter  SecondaryAP Biology
  • AP Biology
  • Primary xylem Growth in woody plants Primary  Woody plants grow in phloem Epidermis Lateral height from tip meristems  primary growth  apical meristem  Woody plants grow in Secondary diameter from sides Primary phloem Primary xylem Secondary  secondary growth phloem xylem  lateral meristems  vascular cambium  makes 2° phloem & 2° xylem  cork cambium  makes bark Annual growth BarkAP Biology layers
  • Primary growth of roots  Root cap  Protects root as it grows  Cell division (mitosis)  Cells small  Cell elongation  Cell differentiation  Cells mature into final cell typesAP Biology
  • Primary growth of stems  Shoot apical meristem  Dividing cells at shoot tip  Develop from axillary bud on stem’s surfaceAP Biology
  • Secondary plant growth: vascular cambium  Adds secondary xylem & phloem  Thickens roots & stems  Heartwood  Close to center  Does not transport water  Sapwood  Transport xylem sapAP Biology Outer layers
  • Secondary plant growth: cork cambium  Periderm Cork cambium & tissues  Produces thick covering  Protects from water loss  Phelloderm  Thin layer of parenchyma  Secondary tissue  Exterior of cork cambium  Suberin - waxyAP Biology