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  • 1. Kingdom: Animals Domain Eukarya Domain Domain Domain Bacteria Archaea EukaryaAP Biology 2007-2008 Common ancestor
  • 2. Animal Characteristics  Heterotrophs  must ingest others for nutrients  Multicellular  complex bodies  No cell walls  allows active movement  Sexual reproduction  no alternation of generations  no haploid gametophyteAP Biology
  • 3. Animal Evolution Cnidaria Nematoda Annelida Echinodermata Porifera Platyhelminthes Mollusca Arthropoda Chordata sponges jellyfish flatworms roundworms mollusks segmented insects starfish vertebrates worms spiders  body & brain backbone redundancy, size,  mobility segmentation specialization,  mobility  body size endoskeleton coelom  digestive sys radial body cavity  body complexity  digestive & repro sys bilateral symmetry distinct body plan; cephalization tissues specialized structure & function, muscle & nerve tissue multicellularity specialization &  body complexity bilateralAP Biology Ancestral Protist
  • 4. acoelomate Body Cavity ectoderm mesoderm Space for organ endoderm system development  increase digestive & reproductive systems pseudocoelomate  increase food ectoderm capacity & digestion mesoderm  increase gamete endoderm production pseudocoel Coelem  mesoderm & endoderm interact during development coelomate  allows complex ectoderm structures to develop mesoderm in digestive system coelom cavity  ex. stomach endodermAP Biology protostome vs. deuterostome
  • 5. Invertebrate: Porifera food taken into each  Sponges cell by endocytosis  no distinct tissues or organs  do have specialized cells  no symmetry  sessile (as adults)AP Biology
  • 6. Invertebrate: Cnidaria  Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral  tissues, but no organs  two cell layers polyp medusa  radial symmetry  predators  tentacles surround gut opening  extracellular digestion  release enzymes into gut cavityAP Biology  absorption by cells lining gut
  • 7. Stinging cells of Cnidarians mouth tentacles sensory cell discharged stinging nematocyst cell hydra undischarged trigger nematocyst stinging cell with nematocystAP Biology
  • 8. Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes  Flatworms  tapeworm, planaria  mostly parasitic  bilaterally symmetrical  have right & left & then have head (anterior) end & posterior end Animals nowface the world  cephalization = development of brain head on!  concentration of sense organs in head  increase specialization in body plan ectoderm mesoderm AP Biology acoelomate endoderm
  • 9. Invertebrate: Nematoda  Roundworms  bilaterally symmetrical  body cavity C. elegans  pseudocoelom = simple body cavity  digestive system  tube running through length of body (mouth to anus)  many are parasitic  hookwormAP Biology
  • 10. Invertebrate: Mollusca  Mollusks  slugs, snails, clams, squid  bilaterally symmetrical (with exceptions)  soft bodies, mostly protected by hard shells  true coelem  increases complexity & specialization of internal organsAP Biology
  • 11. Invertebrate: Annelida  Segmented worms  earthworms, leeches  segments  increase mobility  redundancy in body sections  bilaterally symmetrical  true coelem fan worm leechAP Biology
  • 12. Invertebrate: Arthropoda  Spiders, insects, crustaceans  most successful animal phylum  bilaterally symmetrical  segmented  specialized segments  allows jointed appendages  exoskeleton  chitin + proteinAP Biology
  • 13. Arthropod groupsarachnids8 legs, 2 body partsspiders, ticks, scorpions crustaceans gills, 2 pairs antennae crab, lobster, barnacles, shrmp insectsAP Biology 6 legs, 3 body parts
  • 14. Invertebrate: Echinodermata  Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber  radially symmetrical as adults  spiny endoskeleton  deuterostome loss of bilateral symmetry?AP Biology
  • 15. Invertebrate quick check… Invertebrates: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata  Which group includes snails, clams, and squid?  Which group is the sponges?  Which are the flatworms? …segmented worms? …roundworms?  Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton?  Which two groups have radial symmetry?  What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry?  Which group has no symmetry?AP Biology
  • 16. Chordata  Vertebrates  fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals hollow dorsal  internal bony skeleton nerve cord becomes brain  backbone encasing & spinal cord spinal column  skull-encased brain  deuterostome becomes gills or Eustachian tube Oh, look… pharyngeal your first pouches baby picture! becomes postanal vertebrae becomes tail tail notochordAP Biology or tailbone
  • 17. 450 mya salmon, trout, sharks Vertebrates: Fish  Characteristics gills  body structure  bony & cartilaginous skeleton  jaws & paired appendages (fins) body  scales  body function  gills for gas exchange  two-chambered heart; single loop blood circulation  ectotherms  reproduction  external fertilization  external development in AP Biology aquatic egg
  • 18. Transition to LandEvolution of tetrapods Humerus Femur Pelvis Ulna ShoulderTibia Radius Fibula Lobe-finned fishPelvis Femur Humerus Shoulder Radius Tibia UlnaFibula Early amphibian AP Biology
  • 19. 350 mya frogs Vertebrates: Amphibian salamanders toads  Characteristics lung  body structure buccal cavity  legs (tetrapods)  moist skin glottis closed  body function  lungs (positive pressure) & diffusion through skin for gas exchange  three-chambered heart; veins from lungs back to heart  ectotherms  reproduction  external fertilization  external development in aquatic egg  metamorphosis (tadpole to adult) AP Biology
  • 20. 250 mya dinosaurs, turtles Vertebrates: Reptiles lizards, snakes alligators, crocodile  Characteristics  body structure  dry skin, scales, armor  body function  lungs for gas exchange  thoracic breathing; negative pressure  three-chambered heart  ectotherms leathery embryo shell  reproduction amnion  internal fertilization  external development in amniotic egg chorion allantois AP Biology yolk sac
  • 21. 150 mya finches, hawk Vertebrates: Birds (Aves) ostrich, turkey  Characteristics  body structure  feathers & wings  thin, hollow bone; flight skeleton  body function  very efficient lungs & air sacs  four-chambered heart  endotherms  reproduction trachea lung  internal fertilization anterior  external development in air sacs amniotic egg posterior AP Biology air sacs
  • 22. 220 mya / 65 mya mice, ferret Vertebrates: Mammals elephants, bats whales, humans  Characteristics  body structure  hair  specialized teeth muscles contract  body function  lungs, diaphragm; negative pressure  four-chambered heart diaphragm  endotherms contracts  reproduction  internal fertilization  internal development in uterus  nourishment through placenta  birth live young  mammary glands make milk AP Biology
  • 23. Vertebrates: Mammals  Sub-groups  monotremes  egg-laying mammals  lack placenta & true nipples  duckbilled platypus, echidna  marsupials  pouched mammals  offspring feed from nipples in pouch  short-lived placenta  koala, kangaroo, opossum  placental  true placenta  nutrient & waste filter  shrews, bats, whales, humansAP Biology
  • 24. Vertebrate quick check…  Which vertebrates lay eggs with shells?  Which vertebrates are covered with scales?  What adaptations do birds have for flying?  What kind of symmetry do all vertebrates have?  Which vertebrates are ectothermic and which are endothermic  Why must amphibians live near water?  What reproductive adaptations made mammals very successful?  What characteristics distinguish the 3 sub- groups of mammals?AP Biology
  • 25. That’s the buzz! Any Questions?AP Biology 2007-2008