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Chapter 32 Presentation

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  • Figure 32.1 Which of these organisms are animals?
  • Figure 32.2 Early embryonic development in animals
  • Figure 32.2 Early embryonic development in animals
  • Figure 32.2 Early embryonic development in animals
  • Figure 32.3 Three lines of evidence that choanoflagellates are closely related to animals
  • Figure 32.4 Ediacaran fossils
  • Figure 32.4 Ediacaran fossils
  • Figure 32.4 Ediacaran fossils
  • Figure 32.5 A Cambrian seascape
  • Figure 32.6 Did β –catenin play an ancient role in the molecular control of gastrulation?
  • Figure 32.6 Did β –catenin play an ancient role in the molecular control of gastrulation?
  • Figure 32.6 Did β –catenin play an ancient role in the molecular control of gastrulation?
  • Figure 32.6 Did β –catenin play an ancient role in the molecular control of gastrulation?
  • Figure 32.6 Did β –catenin play an ancient role in the molecular control of gastrulation?
  • Figure 32.7 Body symmetry
  • Figure 32.8 Body cavities of triploblastic animals
  • Figure 32.8a Body cavities of triploblastic animals
  • Figure 32.8b Body cavities of triploblastic animals
  • Figure 32.8c Body cavities of triploblastic animals
  • Figure 32.9 A comparison of protostome and deuterostome development
  • Figure 32.9a A comparison of protostome and deuterostome development
  • Figure 32.9b A comparison of protostome and deuterostome development
  • Figure 32.9c A comparison of protostome and deuterostome development
  • Figure 32.10 A view of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons
  • Figure 32.11 A view of animal phylogeny based mainly on molecular data
  • Figure 32.12 Ecdysis
  • Figure 32.13 Morphological characteristics found among lophotrochozoans
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity
    • 2. Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom
      • The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter
      • 1.3 million living species of animals have been identified
      Video: Coral Reef
    • 3. Fig. 32-1
    • 4.
      • There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing animals from other life-forms
      • Several characteristics, taken together, sufficiently define the group
      Concept 32.1: Animal are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers
    • 5. Nutritional Mode
      • Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food
    • 6. Cell Structure and Specialization
      • Animals are multicellular eukaryotes
      • Their cells lack cell walls
      • Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen
      • Nervous tissue and muscle tissue are unique to animals
    • 7. Reproduction and Development
      • Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle
      • After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage
      • Cleavage leads to formation of a blastula
      • The blastula undergoes gastrulation , forming a gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues
      Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development
    • 8. Fig. 32-2-1 Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage
    • 9. Fig. 32-2-2 Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage Cleavage Blastula Cross section of blastula Blastocoel
    • 10. Fig. 32-2-3 Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage Cleavage Blastula Cross section of blastula Blastocoel Gastrulation Blastopore Gastrula Archenteron Ectoderm Endoderm Blastocoel
    • 11.
      • Many animals have at least one larval stage
      • A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis
    • 12.
      • All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the development of body form
      • Although the Hox family of genes has been highly conserved, it can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology
    • 13. Concept 32.2: The history of animals spans more than half a billion years
      • The animal kingdom includes a great diversity of living species and an even greater diversity of extinct ones
      • The common ancestor of living animals may have lived between 675 and 875 million years ago
      • This ancestor may have resembled modern choanoflagellates, protists that are the closest living relatives of animals
    • 14. Fig. 32-3 OTHER EUKARYOTES Choanoflagellates Sponges Other animals Animals Individual choanoflagellate Collar cell (choanocyte)
    • 15. Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–524 Million Years Ago)
      • Early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran biota , which dates from 565 to 550 million years ago
    • 16. Fig. 32-4 (a) Mawsonites spriggi (b) Spriggina floundersi 1.5 cm 0.4 cm
    • 17. Fig. 32-4a (a) Mawsonites spriggi 1.5 cm
    • 18. Fig. 32-4b (b) Spriggina floundersi 0.4 cm
    • 19. Paleozoic Era (542–251 Million Years Ago)
      • The Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 million years ago) marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals
      • There are several hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion
        • New predator-prey relationships
        • A rise in atmospheric oxygen
        • The evolution of the Hox gene complex
    • 20. Fig. 32-5
    • 21.
      • Animal diversity continued to increase through the Paleozoic, but was punctuated by mass extinctions
      • Animals began to make an impact on land by 460 million years ago
      • Vertebrates made the transition to land around 360 million years ago
    • 22. Mesozoic Era (251–65.5 Million Years Ago)
      • Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms
      • During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates
      • The first mammals emerged
    • 23. Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present)
      • The beginning of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals
      • These extinctions included the large, nonflying dinosaurs and the marine reptiles
      • Modern mammal orders and insects diversified during the Cenozoic
    • 24. Concept 32.3: Animals can be characterized by “body plans”
      • Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according to a body plan , a set of morphological and developmental traits
      • A grade is a group whose members share key biological features
      • A grade is not necessarily a clade , or monophyletic group
    • 25. Fig. 32-6 RESULTS Site of gastrulation 100 µm Site of gastrulation
    • 26. Fig. 32-6a RESULTS 100 µm
    • 27. Fig. 32-6b RESULTS Site of gastrulation
    • 28. Fig. 32-6c RESULTS Site of gastrulation
    • 29. Fig. 32-6d RESULTS
    • 30. Symmetry
      • Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it
      • Some animals have radial symmetry
    • 31. Fig. 32-7 (a) Radial symmetry (b) Bilateral symmetry
    • 32.
      • Two-sided symmetry is called bilateral symmetry
      • Bilaterally symmetrical animals have:
        • A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side
        • A right and left side
        • Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends
        • Cephalization , the development of a head
    • 33. Tissues
      • Animal body plans also vary according to the organization of the animal’s tissues
      • Tissues are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers
      • During development, three germ layers give rise to the tissues and organs of the animal embryo
    • 34.
      • Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryo’s surface
      • Endoderm is the innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube, called the archenteron
      • Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm
      • Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer; these include all bilaterians
    • 35. Body Cavities
      • Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity
      • A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm
      • Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom
    • 36. Fig. 32-8 Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) (a) Coelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) (c) Acoelomate
    • 37. Fig. 32-8a Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) (a) Coelomate
    • 38.
      • A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm
      • Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelom are called pseudocoelomates
    • 39. Fig. 32-8b Pseudocoelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate
    • 40.
      • Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are called acoelomates
    • 41. Fig. 32-8c (c) Acoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm)
    • 42. Protostome and Deuterostome Development
      • Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development
    • 43. Cleavage
      • In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate
      • In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate
      • With indeterminate cleavage, each cell in the early stages of cleavage retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo
      • Indeterminate cleavage makes possible identical twins, and embryonic stem cells
    • 44. Fig. 32-9 Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderm, chordates) Eight-cell stage Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Coelom Archenteron (a) Cleavage (b) Coelom formation Coelom Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Mesoderm Blastopore Blastopore Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom. Anus Mouth Digestive tube Mouth Anus Mouth develops from blastopore. Anus develops from blastopore. (c) Fate of the blastopore
    • 45. Fig. 32-9a Eight-cell stage Eight-cell stage (a) Cleavage Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)
    • 46. Coelom Formation
      • In protostome development, the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom
      • In deuterostome development, the mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron to form the coelom
    • 47. Fig. 32-9b Coelom Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (b) Coelom formation Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Mesoderm Coelom Archenteron Blastopore Blastopore Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom.
    • 48. Fate of the Blastopore
      • The blastopore forms during gastrulation and connects the archenteron to the exterior of the gastrula
      • In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth
      • In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus
    • 49. Fig. 32-9c Anus Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Anus Mouth Mouth Digestive tube (c) Fate of the blastopore Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mouth develops from blastopore. Anus develops from blastopore.
    • 50. Concept 32.4: New views of animal phylogeny are emerging from molecular data
      • Zoologists recognize about three dozen animal phyla
      • Current debate in animal systematics has led to the development of two phylogenetic hypotheses, but others exist as well
    • 51.
      • One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons
    • 52. Fig. 32-10 ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE Metazoa Eumetazoa “ Porifera” Bilateria Deuterostomia Protostomia Cnidaria Ctenophora Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Nematoda
    • 53.
      • One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data
    • 54. Fig. 32-11 Silicea ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE Metazoa Eumetazoa “ Porifera” Bilateria Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Calcarea Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Mollusca Annelida Nematoda Arthropoda
    • 55. Points of Agreement
      • All animals share a common ancestor
      • Sponges are basal animals
      • Eumetazoa is a clade of animals ( eumetazoans ) with true tissues
      • Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria, and are called bilaterians
      • Chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia
    • 56. Progress in Resolving Bilaterian Relationships
      • The morphology-based tree divides bilaterians into two clades: deuterostomes and protostomes
      • In contrast, recent molecular studies indicate three bilaterian clades: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa
      • Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis
    • 57. Fig. 32-12
    • 58.
      • Some lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore
      • Other phyla go through a distinct developmental stage called the trochophore larva
    • 59. Fig. 32-13 Lophophore Apical tuft of cilia Mouth (a) An ectoproct (b) Structure of a trochophore larva 100 µm Anus
    • 60. Future Directions in Animal Systematics
      • Phylogenetic studies based on larger databases will likely provide further insights into animal evolutionary history
    • 61. Fig. 32-UN1 Common ancestor of all animals True tissues Sponges (basal animals) Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela (basal bilaterians) Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Metazoa Eumetazoa Bilateria (most animals) Bilateral summetry Three germ layers
    • 62. Fig. 32-T1
    • 63. Fig. 32-UN2
    • 64. You should now be able to:
      • List the characteristics that combine to define animals
      • Summarize key events of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras
      • Distinguish between the following pairs or sets of terms: radial and bilateral symmetry; grade and clade of animal taxa; diploblastic and triploblastic; spiral and radial cleavage; determinate and indeterminate cleavage; acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and coelomate grades
    • 65.
      • Compare the developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes
      • Compare the alternate relationships of annelids and arthropods presented by two different proposed phylogenetic trees
      • Distinguish between ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans

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