Chapter 31 Fungi
Overview: Mighty Mushrooms <ul><li>Fungi are diverse and widespread </li></ul><ul><li>They are essential for the well-bein...
Fig. 31-1
Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption <ul><li>Despite their diversity, fungi share key traits, most...
Nutrition and Ecology <ul><li>Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body </li></ul><ul><li>Fun...
<ul><li>Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul...
Body Structure <ul><li>The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells ( yeasts ) </li></ul><...
Fungal Morphology <ul><li>The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients  </li></ul><ul>...
Fig. 31-2 Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures Hyphae Mycelium 20 µm
<ul><li>Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by  septa , with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles </li...
Fig. 31-3 (b) Coenocytic hypha Septum (a) Septate hypha Pore Nuclei Nuclei Cell wall Cell wall
Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi <ul><li>Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called  haustoria  that allow th...
Fig. 31-4 (b) Haustoria (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell pl...
Fig. 31-4a (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Hyphae 25 µm
Fig. 31-4b (b) Haustoria Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha
<ul><li>Mycorrhizae  are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots </li></ul><ul><li>Ectomycorrhizal...
Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles <ul><li>Fungi propagate themselves by producing v...
Fig. 31-5-1 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei...
Fig. 31-5-2 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei...
Fig. 31-5-3 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei...
Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, with the exception of transient diploid stages formed duri...
<ul><li>Plasmogamy  is the union of two parent mycelia </li></ul><ul><li>In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each paren...
<ul><li>Hours, days, or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of  karyogamy , nuclear fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Dur...
Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>In addition to sexual reproduction, many fungi can reproduce asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Mold...
Fig. 31-6 2.5 µm
<ul><li>Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are yeasts, which inhabit moist environments </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of...
Fig. 31-7 10 µm Parent cell Bud
<ul><li>Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage </li></ul><ul><li>Mycologists have traditionally called these  de...
Concept 31.3: The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist <ul><li>Fungi and animals are more ...
The Origin of Fungi <ul><li>Fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives form the  opisthokonts  clade </li></ul>
Fig. 31-8 Animals (and their close protistan relatives) Other fungi Nucleariids Chytrids UNICELLULAR, FLAGELLATED ANCESTOR...
<ul><li>DNA evidence suggests that fungi are most closely related to unicellular  nucleariids  while animals are most clos...
Fig. 31-9 50 µm
Are Microsporidia Closely Related to Fungi? <ul><li>Microsporidia are unicellular parasites of animals and protists </li><...
Fig. 31-10 10 µm Host cell nucleus Developing microsporidian Spore
The Move to Land <ul><li>Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land and probably formed mutualistic relationships wi...
Concept 31.4: Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages <ul><li>Molecular analyses have helped clarify evolutiona...
Fig. 31-11 Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha Asc...
Fig. 31-11a Chytrids (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm
Fig. 31-11b Zygomycetes (1,000 species)
Fig. 31-11c Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha
Fig. 31-11d Ascomycetes (65,000 species)
Fig. 31-11e Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)
Chytrids <ul><li>Chytrids  (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Fig. 31-UN1 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
Fig. 31-12 Flagellum 4 µm
<ul><li>Until recently, systematists thought that fungi lost flagella only once in their evolutionary history </li></ul><u...
Zygomycetes <ul><li>The  zygomycetes  (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit great diversity of life histories </li></ul><ul><li>They...
Fig. 31-UN2 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
<ul><li>The life cycle of black bread mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ) is fairly typical of the phylum </li></ul>
Fig. 31-13-1 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid n...
Fig. 31-13-2 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid n...
Fig. 31-13-3 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid n...
Fig. 31-13-4 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid n...
<ul><li>Some zygomycetes, such as  Pilobolus,  can actually “aim” their sporangia toward conditions associated with good f...
Fig. 31-14 0.5 mm
Glomeromycetes <ul><li>The  glomeromycetes  (phylum Glomeromycota) were once considered zygomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>They...
Fig. 31-UN3 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
Fig. 31-15 2.5 µm
Ascomycetes <ul><li>Ascomycetes  (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><l...
Fig. 31-UN4 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
Fig. 31-16 Tuber melanosporum,  a truffle Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel
Fig. 31-16a Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel
Fig. 31-16b Tuber melanosporum,  a truffle
<ul><li>Ascomycetes include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts </li></ul><ul><li>Ascomycetes reproduce asexually ...
Fig. 31-17-1 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination ...
Fig. 31-17-2 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination ...
Fig. 31-17-3 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination ...
Fig. 31-17-4 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination ...
Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Basidomycetes  (phylum Basidiomycota) include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi, mutualists, an...
Fig. 31-UN5 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
Fig. 31-18 Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood Maiden veil fungus ( Dictyphora ), a fungus with an odor like rottin...
Fig. 31-18a Maiden veil fungus ( Dictyphora ), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat
Fig. 31-18b Puffballs emitting spores
Fig. 31-18c Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood
<ul><li>The life cycle of a basidiomycete usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>In response ...
Fig. 31-19-1 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n   +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid...
Fig. 31-19-2 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n   +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid...
Fig. 31-19-3 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n   +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid...
Basidium Fig. 31-19-4 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n   +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+...
Fig. 31-20
Concept 31.5: Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare <ul><li>Fungi interact ...
Fungi as Decomposers <ul><li>Fungi are efficient decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>They perform essential recycling of chemica...
Fungi as Mutualists <ul><li>Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals </li></ul>...
Fungus-Plant Mutualisms <ul><li>Mycorrhizae are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture </li></ul><ul><...
Fig. 31-21 Both endophyte and pathogen present (E+P+) Endophyte not present; pathogen present (E – P+) Leaf area damaged (...
Fungus-Animal Symbioses <ul><li>Some fungi share their digestive services with animals </li></ul><ul><li>These fungi help ...
Fig. 31-22
Lichens <ul><li>A  lichen  is a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which million...
Fig. 31-23   A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen   Crustose (encrusting) lichens
Fig. 31-23a A fruticose (shrublike) lichen
Fig. 31-23b Crustose (encrusting) lichens
Fig. 31-23c A foliose (leaflike) lichen
<ul><li>The fungal component of a lichen is most often an ascomycete </li></ul><ul><li>Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an in...
Fig. 31-24 Algal cell Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Fungal hyphae Algal layer 20 µm
<ul><li>The algae provide carbon compounds, cyanobacteria provide organic nitrogen, and fungi provide the environment for ...
<ul><li>Lichens are important pioneers on new rock and soil surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens are sensitive to pollution,...
Fungi as Pathogens <ul><li>About 30% of known fungal species are parasites or pathogens, mostly on or in plants </li></ul>...
Fig. 31-25 (c) Ergots on rye (a) Corn smut on corn (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves
Fig. 31-25a (a) Corn smut on corn
Fig. 31-25b (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves
Fig. 31-25c (c) Ergots on rye
Practical Uses of Fungi <ul><li>Humans eat many fungi and use others to make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread </li>...
Fig. 31-26 Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium
Fig. 31-UN6
Fig. 31-UN6a
Fig. 31-UN6b
Fig. 31-UN6c
Fig. 31-UN6d
Fig. 31-UN6e
Fig. 31-T1
Fig. 31-UN7
You should now be able to: <ul><li>List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from other multicellular kingdoms </li>...
<ul><li>Describe the life cycles of  Rhizopus stolonifer  and  Neurospora crassa </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among zygom...
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  • Figure 31.1 Can you spot the largest organism in this forest?
  • Figure 31.2 Structure of a multicellular fungus
  • Figure 31.3 Two forms of hyphae
  • Figure 31.4 Specialized hyphae
  • Figure 31.4 Specialized hyphae
  • Figure 31.4 Specialized hyphae
  • Figure 31.5 Generalized life cycle of fungi
  • Figure 31.5 Generalized life cycle of fungi
  • Figure 31.5 Generalized life cycle of fungi
  • Figure 31.6 Penicillium , a mold commonly encountered as a decomposer of food
  • Figure 31.7 The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several stages of budding (SEM)
  • Figure 31.8 Fungi and their close relatives
  • Figure 31.9 Fossil fungal hyphae and spores from the Ordovician period (about 460 million years ago) (LM)
  • Figure 31.10 A eukaryotic cell infected by microsporidia
  • Figure 31.11 Fungal diversity
  • Figure 31.11 Fungal diversity
  • Figure 31.11 Fungal diversity
  • Figure 31.11 Fungal diversity
  • Figure 31.11 Fungal diversity
  • Figure 31.11 Fungal diversity
  • Figure 31.12 Flagellated chytrid zoospore (TEM)
  • Figure 31.13 The life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold)
  • Figure 31.13 The life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold)
  • Figure 31.13 The life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold)
  • Figure 31.13 The life cycle of the zygomycete Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold)
  • Figure 31.14 Pilobolus aiming its sporangia
  • Figure 31.15 Arbuscular mycorrhizae
  • Figure 31.16 Ascomycetes (sac fungi)
  • Figure 31.16 Ascomycetes (sac fungi)
  • Figure 31.16 Ascomycetes (sac fungi)
  • Figure 31.17 The life cycle of Neurospora crassa , an ascomycete
  • Figure 31.17 The life cycle of Neurospora crassa , an ascomycete
  • Figure 31.17 The life cycle of Neurospora crassa , an ascomycete
  • Figure 31.17 The life cycle of Neurospora crassa , an ascomycete
  • Figure 31.18 Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
  • Figure 31.18 Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
  • Figure 31.18 Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
  • Figure 31.18 Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
  • Figure 31.19 The life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete
  • Figure 31.19 The life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete
  • Figure 31.19 The life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete
  • Figure 31.19 The life cycle of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete
  • Figure 31.20 A fairy ring
  • Figure 31.21 Do endophytes benefit a woody plant?
  • Figure 31.22 Fungus-gardening insects For the Discovery Video Leafcutter Ants, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 31.23 Variation in lichen growth forms
  • Figure 31.23 Variation in lichen growth forms
  • Figure 31.23 Variation in lichen growth forms
  • Figure 31.23 Variation in lichen growth forms
  • Figure 31.24 Anatomy of an ascomycete lichen (colorized SEM)
  • Figure 31.25 Examples of fungal diseases of plants For the Discovery Video Fungi, go to Animation and Video Files.
  • Figure 31.25 Examples of fungal diseases of plants
  • Figure 31.25 Examples of fungal diseases of plants
  • Figure 31.25 Examples of fungal diseases of plants
  • Figure 31.26 Fungal production of an antibiotic
  • Chapter 31 Presentation

    1. 1. Chapter 31 Fungi
    2. 2. Overview: Mighty Mushrooms <ul><li>Fungi are diverse and widespread </li></ul><ul><li>They are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fig. 31-1
    4. 4. Concept 31.1: Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption <ul><li>Despite their diversity, fungi share key traits, most importantly the way in which they derive nutrition </li></ul>
    5. 5. Nutrition and Ecology <ul><li>Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>The versatility of these enzymes contributes to fungi’s ecological success </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualists </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Body Structure <ul><li>The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells ( yeasts ) </li></ul><ul><li>Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both </li></ul>Animation: Fungal Reproduction and Nutrition
    8. 8. Fungal Morphology <ul><li>The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi consist of mycelia , networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin </li></ul>
    9. 9. Fig. 31-2 Reproductive structure Spore-producing structures Hyphae Mycelium 20 µm
    10. 10. <ul><li>Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa , with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Coenocytic fungi lack septa </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fig. 31-3 (b) Coenocytic hypha Septum (a) Septate hypha Pore Nuclei Nuclei Cell wall Cell wall
    12. 12. Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi <ul><li>Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host </li></ul>
    13. 13. Fig. 31-4 (b) Haustoria (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha Hyphae 25 µm
    14. 14. Fig. 31-4a (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Nematode Hyphae 25 µm
    15. 15. Fig. 31-4b (b) Haustoria Plant cell wall Haustorium Plant cell plasma membrane Plant cell Fungal hypha
    16. 16. <ul><li>Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots </li></ul><ul><li>Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane </li></ul>
    17. 17. Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles <ul><li>Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles </li></ul>
    18. 18. Fig. 31-5-1 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n )
    19. 19. Fig. 31-5-2 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote
    20. 20. Fig. 31-5-3 Spores Spore-producing structures GERMINATION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mycelium Key Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) Heterokaryotic stage Zygote Spores GERMINATION MEIOSIS
    21. 21. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, with the exception of transient diploid stages formed during the sexual life cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of hyphae from different mating types </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate their mating type </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Plasmogamy is the union of two parent mycelia </li></ul><ul><li>In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; they coexist in the mycelium, called a heterokaryon </li></ul><ul><li>In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell; such a mycelium is said to be dikaryotic </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Hours, days, or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of karyogamy , nuclear fusion </li></ul><ul><li>During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells </li></ul><ul><li>The diploid phase is short-lived and undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spores </li></ul>
    24. 24. Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>In addition to sexual reproduction, many fungi can reproduce asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia </li></ul>
    25. 25. Fig. 31-6 2.5 µm
    26. 26. <ul><li>Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are yeasts, which inhabit moist environments </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of producing spores, yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the pinching of “bud cells” from a parent cell </li></ul>
    27. 27. Fig. 31-7 10 µm Parent cell Bud
    28. 28. <ul><li>Many molds and yeasts have no known sexual stage </li></ul><ul><li>Mycologists have traditionally called these deuteromycetes , or imperfect fungi </li></ul>
    29. 29. Concept 31.3: The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, single-celled, flagellated protist <ul><li>Fungi and animals are more closely related to each other than they are to plants or other eukaryotes </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Origin of Fungi <ul><li>Fungi, animals, and their protistan relatives form the opisthokonts clade </li></ul>
    31. 31. Fig. 31-8 Animals (and their close protistan relatives) Other fungi Nucleariids Chytrids UNICELLULAR, FLAGELLATED ANCESTOR Fungi Opisthokonts
    32. 32. <ul><li>DNA evidence suggests that fungi are most closely related to unicellular nucleariids while animals are most closely related to unicellular choanoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that fungi and animals evolved from a common flagellated unicellular ancestor and multicellularity arose separately in the two groups </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest undisputed fossils of fungi are only about 460 million years old </li></ul>
    33. 33. Fig. 31-9 50 µm
    34. 34. Are Microsporidia Closely Related to Fungi? <ul><li>Microsporidia are unicellular parasites of animals and protists </li></ul><ul><li>They have tiny organelles derived from mitochondria but not conventional mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular comparisons indicate they may be closely related to fungi </li></ul>
    35. 35. Fig. 31-10 10 µm Host cell nucleus Developing microsporidian Spore
    36. 36. The Move to Land <ul><li>Fungi were among the earliest colonizers of land and probably formed mutualistic relationships with early land plants </li></ul>
    37. 37. Concept 31.4: Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of lineages <ul><li>Molecular analyses have helped clarify evolutionary relationships among fungal groups, although areas of uncertainty remain </li></ul>
    38. 38. Fig. 31-11 Chytrids (1,000 species) Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)
    39. 39. Fig. 31-11a Chytrids (1,000 species) Hyphae 25 µm
    40. 40. Fig. 31-11b Zygomycetes (1,000 species)
    41. 41. Fig. 31-11c Glomeromycetes (160 species) Fungal hypha
    42. 42. Fig. 31-11d Ascomycetes (65,000 species)
    43. 43. Fig. 31-11e Basidiomycetes (30,000 species)
    44. 44. Chytrids <ul><li>Chytrids (phylum Chytridiomycota) are found in freshwater and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>They can be decomposers, parasites, or mutualists </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that chytrids diverged early in fungal evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores </li></ul>Video: Allomyces Zoospore Release Video: Phlyctochytrium Zoospore Release
    45. 45. Fig. 31-UN1 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
    46. 46. Fig. 31-12 Flagellum 4 µm
    47. 47. <ul><li>Until recently, systematists thought that fungi lost flagella only once in their evolutionary history </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular data indicate that some “chytrids” are actually more closely related to another fungal group, the zygomycetes; chytrids are a paraphyletic group </li></ul>
    48. 48. Zygomycetes <ul><li>The zygomycetes (phylum Zygomycota) exhibit great diversity of life histories </li></ul><ul><li>They include fast-growing molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts </li></ul><ul><li>The zygomycetes are named for their sexually produced zygosporangia </li></ul><ul><li>Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions </li></ul>
    49. 49. Fig. 31-UN2 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
    50. 50. <ul><li>The life cycle of black bread mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ) is fairly typical of the phylum </li></ul>
    51. 51. Fig. 31-13-1 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) PLASMOGAMY Key
    52. 52. Fig. 31-13-2 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY
    53. 53. Fig. 31-13-3 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Sporangium Spores Dispersal and germination
    54. 54. Fig. 31-13-4 Rhizopus growing on bread SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) Gametangia with haploid nuclei Mating type (–) Mating type (+) Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Heterokaryotic ( n + n ) PLASMOGAMY Key Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium 100 µm KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Sporangium Spores Dispersal and germination ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Sporangia Mycelium 50 µm
    55. 55. <ul><li>Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually “aim” their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources </li></ul>
    56. 56. Fig. 31-14 0.5 mm
    57. 57. Glomeromycetes <ul><li>The glomeromycetes (phylum Glomeromycota) were once considered zygomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>They are now classified in a separate clade </li></ul><ul><li>Glomeromycetes form arbuscular mycorrhizae </li></ul>
    58. 58. Fig. 31-UN3 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
    59. 59. Fig. 31-15 2.5 µm
    60. 60. Ascomycetes <ul><li>Ascomycetes (phylum Ascomycota) live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>The phylum is defined by production of sexual spores in saclike asci , usually contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps </li></ul><ul><li>Ascomycetes are commonly called sac fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Ascomycetes vary in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to elaborate cup fungi and morels </li></ul>
    61. 61. Fig. 31-UN4 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
    62. 62. Fig. 31-16 Tuber melanosporum, a truffle Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel
    63. 63. Fig. 31-16a Morchella esculenta, the tasty morel
    64. 64. Fig. 31-16b Tuber melanosporum, a truffle
    65. 65. <ul><li>Ascomycetes include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts </li></ul><ul><li>Ascomycetes reproduce asexually by enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia </li></ul><ul><li>Conidia are not formed inside sporangia; they are produced asexually at the tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores </li></ul><ul><li>Neurospora is a model organism with a well-studied genome </li></ul>
    66. 66. Fig. 31-17-1 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Hypha Dispersal Haploid spores (conidia)
    67. 67. Fig. 31-17-2 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Hypha PLASMOGAMY Haploid spores (conidia) Conidia; mating type (–) Mating type (+) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dikaryotic hyphae Ascus (dikaryotic) Mycelia Dispersal
    68. 68. Fig. 31-17-3 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Hypha PLASMOGAMY Haploid spores (conidia) Conidia; mating type (–) Mating type (+) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dikaryotic hyphae Ascus (dikaryotic) Mycelia KARYOGAMY Diploid nucleus (zygote) Dispersal
    69. 69. Fig. 31-17-4 Key Haploid ( n ) Diploid (2 n ) Dikaryotic ( n + n ) Conidiophore Mycelium ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Germination Hypha PLASMOGAMY Haploid spores (conidia) Conidia; mating type (–) Mating type (+) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dikaryotic hyphae Ascus (dikaryotic) Mycelia KARYOGAMY Diploid nucleus (zygote) Germination Asci Dispersal Dispersal Ascocarp Eight ascospores Four haploid nuclei MEIOSIS
    70. 70. Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Basidomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota) include mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi, mutualists, and plant parasites </li></ul><ul><li>The phylum is defined by a clublike structure called a basidium , a transient diploid stage in the life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The basidiomycetes are also called club fungi </li></ul>
    71. 71. Fig. 31-UN5 Chytrids Basidiomycetes Zygomycetes Glomeromycetes Ascomycetes
    72. 72. Fig. 31-18 Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood Maiden veil fungus ( Dictyphora ), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat Puffballs emitting spores
    73. 73. Fig. 31-18a Maiden veil fungus ( Dictyphora ), a fungus with an odor like rotting meat
    74. 74. Fig. 31-18b Puffballs emitting spores
    75. 75. Fig. 31-18c Shelf fungi, important decomposers of wood
    76. 76. <ul><li>The life cycle of a basidiomycete usually includes a long-lived dikaryotic mycelium </li></ul><ul><li>In response to environmental stimuli, the mycelium reproduces sexually by producing elaborate fruiting bodies call basidiocarps </li></ul><ul><li>Mushrooms are examples of basidiocarps </li></ul><ul><li>The numerous basidia in a basidiocarp are sources of sexual spores called basidiospores </li></ul>
    77. 77. Fig. 31-19-1 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–)
    78. 78. Fig. 31-19-2 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia ( n+n ) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp ( n+n )
    79. 79. Fig. 31-19-3 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia ( n+n ) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp ( n+n ) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei
    80. 80. Basidium Fig. 31-19-4 SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Diploid (2 n ) Haploid ( n ) Dikaryotic ( n +n ) Key PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Haploid mycelia Dikaryotic mycelium Mating type (–) Basidia ( n+n ) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp ( n+n ) KARYOGAMY Diploid nuclei MEIOSIS Basidium containing four haploid nuclei Dispersal and germination Basidiospores ( n ) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidiospore 1 µm Haploid mycelia
    81. 81. Fig. 31-20
    82. 82. Concept 31.5: Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling, ecological interactions, and human welfare <ul><li>Fungi interact with other organisms in many ways </li></ul>
    83. 83. Fungi as Decomposers <ul><li>Fungi are efficient decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>They perform essential recycling of chemical elements between the living and nonliving world </li></ul>
    84. 84. Fungi as Mutualists <ul><li>Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals </li></ul><ul><li>All of these relationships have profound ecological effects </li></ul>
    85. 85. Fungus-Plant Mutualisms <ul><li>Mycorrhizae are enormously important in natural ecosystems and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Plants harbor harmless symbiotic endophytes that live inside leaves or other plant parts </li></ul><ul><li>Endophytes make toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogens </li></ul>
    86. 86. Fig. 31-21 Both endophyte and pathogen present (E+P+) Endophyte not present; pathogen present (E – P+) Leaf area damaged (%) Leaf mortality (%) 30 10 20 10 15 5 0 0 E+P+ E–P+ E–P+ E+P+ RESULTS
    87. 87. Fungus-Animal Symbioses <ul><li>Some fungi share their digestive services with animals </li></ul><ul><li>These fungi help break down plant material in the guts of cows and other grazing mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Many species of ants and termites use the digestive power of fungi by raising them in “farms” </li></ul>
    88. 88. Fig. 31-22
    89. 89. Lichens <ul><li>A lichen is a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae </li></ul>
    90. 90. Fig. 31-23   A foliose (leaflike) lichen A fruticose (shrublike) lichen   Crustose (encrusting) lichens
    91. 91. Fig. 31-23a A fruticose (shrublike) lichen
    92. 92. Fig. 31-23b Crustose (encrusting) lichens
    93. 93. Fig. 31-23c A foliose (leaflike) lichen
    94. 94. <ul><li>The fungal component of a lichen is most often an ascomycete </li></ul><ul><li>Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface </li></ul>
    95. 95. Fig. 31-24 Algal cell Ascocarp of fungus Soredia Fungal hyphae Fungal hyphae Algal layer 20 µm
    96. 96. <ul><li>The algae provide carbon compounds, cyanobacteria provide organic nitrogen, and fungi provide the environment for growth </li></ul><ul><li>The fungi of lichens can reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction is by fragmentation or the formation of soredia, small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae </li></ul>
    97. 97. <ul><li>Lichens are important pioneers on new rock and soil surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Lichens are sensitive to pollution, and their death can be a warning that air quality is deteriorating </li></ul>
    98. 98. Fungi as Pathogens <ul><li>About 30% of known fungal species are parasites or pathogens, mostly on or in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Some fungi that attack food crops are toxic to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are much less susceptible to parasitic fungi than are plants </li></ul><ul><li>The general term for a fungal infection in animals is mycosis </li></ul>
    99. 99. Fig. 31-25 (c) Ergots on rye (a) Corn smut on corn (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves
    100. 100. Fig. 31-25a (a) Corn smut on corn
    101. 101. Fig. 31-25b (b) Tar spot fungus on maple leaves
    102. 102. Fig. 31-25c (c) Ergots on rye
    103. 103. Practical Uses of Fungi <ul><li>Humans eat many fungi and use others to make cheeses, alcoholic beverages, and bread </li></ul><ul><li>Some fungi are used to produce antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections, for example the ascomycete Penicillium </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, insulin-like growth factor can be produced in the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae </li></ul></ul>
    104. 104. Fig. 31-26 Staphylococcus Zone of inhibited growth Penicillium
    105. 105. Fig. 31-UN6
    106. 106. Fig. 31-UN6a
    107. 107. Fig. 31-UN6b
    108. 108. Fig. 31-UN6c
    109. 109. Fig. 31-UN6d
    110. 110. Fig. 31-UN6e
    111. 111. Fig. 31-T1
    112. 112. Fig. 31-UN7
    113. 113. You should now be able to: <ul><li>List the characteristics that distinguish fungi from other multicellular kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the processes of plasmogamy and karyogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the evidence that multicellularity evolved independently in fungi and animals </li></ul>
    114. 114. <ul><li>Describe the life cycles of Rhizopus stolonifer and Neurospora crassa </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among zygomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>Describe some of the roles of fungi in ecosystems, lichens, animal-fungi mutualistic symbioses, food production, and medicine and as pathogens </li></ul>
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