Chapter 3 (Ecology)

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Chapter 3 (Ecology)

  1. 1. Ecology<br />Chapter 3: The Biosphere<br />
  2. 2. What is Ecology?<br />Ecology – the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment<br />Levels of Organization<br />Biosphere – the largest of the areas of the earth containing the portion of the planet that life exists, including land, water and air (atmosphere)<br />
  3. 3. Levels of Organization<br />
  4. 4. Levels of Organization<br />Individual – similar organism (can mate)<br />Population – group of individuals that live in the same area<br />Community – populations that live together is a defined area<br />Ecosystem – all the organisms that live in a similar area along with the nonliving material<br />Biome – group of ecosystems (similar climate)<br />Biosphere – entire earth<br />
  5. 5. Ecological Methods<br />Scientists use 3 basic methods to conduct ecological research<br />Observing – qualitative and quantitative observations<br />Experimenting – used to test hypotheses, can set up artificial environments and manipulate conditions<br />Modeling – models are made to study events that have occurred over large time periods, or are large in scale<br />
  6. 6. Interactions Among Organisms<br />Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth<br />Producers – autotrophs (make their own energy (using the sun)<br />Photosynthesis – using light to produce energy / food<br />Chemosynthesis – using inorganic molecules to produce energy / food<br />
  7. 7. Interactions (continued)<br />Consumers – heterotrophs (cannot make their own energy)<br />Herbivores – consume plants<br />Carnivores - consume meat<br />Omnivores – consume both<br />Detritovores – dead or decaying matter (earthworms, mites, crabs (animals)<br />Decomposers – dead or decaying matter (bacteria & fungus)<br />
  8. 8. Energy Transfer / Feeding Relationships<br />Food Chain / Food Web – series of steps of energy transfer (web = connected food chains)<br />Trophic Levels – each step in a food chain<br />
  9. 9. Ecological Pyramids<br />Diagram that shows relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.<br />Energy Pyramid – energy available at each trophic level (10% rule)<br />Biomass Pyramid – amount of living tissue<br />Pyramid of Numbers - # of individuals <br />
  10. 10. Examples of Pyramids<br />
  11. 11. Biogeochemical Cycles<br />Water Cycle<br />Evaporation, precipitation, condensation, transpiration, run-off, ground water<br />
  12. 12. Biogeochemical Cycles<br />Carbon Cycle – <br /> carbon fixation, CO2<br />Photosynthesis, respiration<br />Fossil fuels<br />Human Activites<br />Mining, cutting forests, burning fossil fuels<br />
  13. 13. Biogeochemical Cycles<br />Nitrogen cycle – nitrogen fixation (bacteria), denitrification<br />
  14. 14. Nutrient Limitation<br />Primary Productivity – rate of production of organic matter by producers<br />Limiting Nutrients – nutrient that limits productivity<br />Aquatic ecosystems – large input of limiting nutrient can cause an increase of algae or producers = algal bloom<br />

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