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Chapter 29 and 30 - Plant Diversity

Chapter 29 and 30 - Plant Diversity






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    Chapter 29 and 30 - Plant Diversity Chapter 29 and 30 - Plant Diversity Presentation Transcript

    • PLANT DIVERSITYChapters 29 & 30
    • Definition of Plants• Multicellular• Eukaryotic• Photosynthetic• Autotrophic• Cell walls made of cellulose• Chlorophylls a and b
    • Plant Evolution
    • 4 Main Groups of Land Plants • Bryophytes – non vascular plants • Mosses, liverworts, hornworts • Pteridophytes - seedless vascular plants • Lycophytes, ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns • Gymnosperms – naked seed plants • Ginko, cycads, gnete, conifers • Angiosperms – flowering plants
    • Land Plant Evolution• Ancestral green algae• Aquatic plants: Charophyceans• Land plants: • Development of vascular tissue • Development of seeds • Development of flowering plants
    • Charophyceans• Closest relative of land plants• Algal group• Similarities with land plants • Rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes • Located in plasma membranes • Peroxisomes • Flagellated sperm (some land plants)
    • Evidence of common ancestor withcharophycean algae• Homologous chloroplast• Homologous cellulose walls• Homologous peroxisomes• Homologous sperm• Molecular systematics • Chloroplast DNA • Ribosomal RNA
    • Adaptations of Land Plants• Apical meristems • Roots and shoots – growth• Multicellular, dependent embryos • “embryophytes” • Transfer of nutrients from parent• Alternation of generations • Sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid)• Gametangia – gametes are produced within multicellular organ • Female – archegonia • Male - Antheridia• Walled spores – resist drying out• Cuticle – waxy covering, water conservation• Stomata – pores, water conservation• Vascular tissue – transport water and minerals
    • Apical meristems of plant shoots and roots
    • Embryos of Land Plants
    • Alternation of generations
    • Walled Spore
    • Gametangia: Gametes produced within multicellular gametangia Archegonium - female Antheridium - male egg sperm
    • Cuticle of a stem: Prevents drying out
    • Vascular Tissue: Xylem and Phloem Xylem (water) Phloem (food)
    • Development of Alternation of Generations • Delay in meiosis until one or more mitotic divisions of the zygote occurred • Result: multicellular, diploid sporophyte • Increases number of spores produced per zygote
    • What is the Plant Kingdom?
    • Bryophytes• Three phyla • Hepatophyta: liverworts • Anthocerophyta: hornworts • Bryophyta: mosses• Non-vascular• Earliest land plants• Gametophyte (haploid) is dominant form• Anchored by rhizoids• No true roots or leaves
    • Bryophytes
    • Life cycle of a moss
    • Moss life cycle gametophyte gametangia sporophyte Protonemata sporophyte spores (pre-gametophyte)
    • Sphagnum, or peat moss gametophyte sporophyte
    • Vascular Plants• Vascular plants have • Xylem – transports water • Phloem – transports food • Dominant sporophyte generation• First vascular plants were seedless• Three Groups • Seedless plants • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms
    • Seedless Vascular Plants• Two phyla • Lycophyta – lycophytes • Pterophyta – ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails• Most have true roots and leaves• Still require water for fertilization
    • Pteridophytes Club “moss” Whisk fern Horsetail Fern
    • Hypothesis for the development of leaves• Probably evolved from a flap of stem tissue • Stem had vascular tissue • Microphylls• Macrophylls – larger leaves with branched veins
    • Ferns
    • Life cycle of a fern
    • Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production & sori
    • Sorus (sori): Clusters of sporangia – found on underside of leaves
    • Mature fern sporangium – releasing spores
    • Fern gametophyte
    • Archegonia of fern Flagellated sperm from antheridium fertilize eggs in archegonium zygote
    • Fern sporophytes
    • Evolution of Seed Plants• Reduction of gametophyte continued• Seeds – important means of dispersal• Pollen – eliminated water requirement for fertilization • Pollination• Two clades • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms
    • Gametophyte/ Sporophyte Relationships• Seed plants: further reduced gametophyte• Female gametophyte and embryo protected by parental sporophyte
    • Seed Development• Fertilization initiates the transformation from ovule to seed • Sporophyte embryo • Food supply • Protective coat
    • Seed Dispersal• Seeds have adaptations for dispersal• Wind• Water• Animal
    • Gymnosperms• Four phyla • Ginko • Cycads • Gnetophytes • Conifers• Naked seed – no fruit (ovary)• Seeds develop on surface of sporophylls• Evolved before angiosperms
    • Phylum Coniferophyta Douglas fir Sequoia
    • Phylum Coniferophyta: Frasier Fir
    • Characteristics of Conifers• Cone: reproductive structure • Cluster of sporophylls • Female cones: produce ovules - “pine cones” • Male cones: produce pollen• Seed develops from fertilized ovule – scale of cone• Dominate in areas with short growing season • High latitude or altitude• Most are evergreens• Some have needle-shaped leaves • Adapted for dry conditions • Thick cuticle
    • Life cycle of a pine
    • Pollen cone (male) – produces pollen Pine pollen
    • Pine embryo Embryo (new sporophyte)
    • Angiosperms: Flowering Plants Major Clades:
    • Phylum Anthophyta: Angiosperms• Vascular seed plants• Reproductive structures: flowers, fruits• Most diverse group of plants today• 2 groups Monocots Dicots # Petals Multiples of 3 Multiples of 4 or 5 # Cotyledons 1 2 Vascular bundles Scattered Circle Root Fibrous Tap root
    • Xylem cells in Angiosperms• Trachids • Support • Water transport• Fiber ** • Support• Vessel element ** • More efficient** Evolutionary adaptations of angiosperms
    • Flower Structure: Reproductive Adaptation of Angiosperms
    • Life cycle of an angiosperm
    • Fruit and Seed Dispersal
    • Flower-pollinator relationships