Chapter 29 & 30 - Biological Diversity of Plants

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  • 1. PLANT DIVERSITYChapters 29 & 30
  • 2. Definition of Plants• Multicellular• Eukaryotic• Photosynthetic• Autotrophic• Cell walls made of cellulose• Chlorophylls a and b
  • 3. Plant Evolution
  • 4. 4 Main Groups of Land Plants • Bryophytes – non vascular plants • Mosses, liverworts, hornworts • Pteridophytes - seedless vascular plants • Lycophytes, ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns • Gymnosperms – naked seed plants • Ginko, cycads, gnete, conifers • Angiosperms – flowering plants
  • 5. Land Plant Evolution• Ancestral green algae• Aquatic plants: Charophyceans• Land plants: • Development of vascular tissue • Development of seeds • Development of flowering plants
  • 6. Charophyceans• Closest relative of land plants• Algal group• Similarities with land plants • Rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes • Located in plasma membranes • Peroxisomes • Flagellated sperm (some land plants)
  • 7. Evidence of common ancestor withcharophycean algae• Homologous chloroplast• Homologous cellulose walls• Homologous peroxisomes• Homologous sperm• Molecular systematics • Chloroplast DNA • Ribosomal RNA
  • 8. Adaptations of Land Plants• Apical meristems • Roots and shoots – growth• Multicellular, dependent embryos • “embryophytes” • Transfer of nutrients from parent• Alternation of generations • Sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid)• Gametangia – gametes are produced within multicellular organ • Female – archegonia • Male - Antheridia• Walled spores – resist drying out• Cuticle – waxy covering, water conservation• Stomata – pores, water conservation• Vascular tissue – transport water and minerals
  • 9. Apical meristems of plant shoots and roots
  • 10. Embryos of Land Plants
  • 11. Alternation of generations
  • 12. Walled Spore
  • 13. Gametangia: Gametes produced within multicellular gametangia Archegonium - female Antheridium - male egg sperm
  • 14. Cuticle of a stem: Prevents drying out
  • 15. Vascular Tissue: Xylem and Phloem Xylem (water) Phloem (food)
  • 16. Development of Alternation of Generations • Delay in meiosis until one or more mitotic divisions of the zygote occurred • Result: multicellular, diploid sporophyte • Increases number of spores produced per zygote
  • 17. What is the Plant Kingdom?
  • 18. Bryophytes• Three phyla • Hepatophyta: liverworts • Anthocerophyta: hornworts • Bryophyta: mosses• Non-vascular• Earliest land plants• Gametophyte (haploid) is dominant form• Anchored by rhizoids• No true roots or leaves
  • 19. Bryophytes
  • 20. Life cycle of a moss
  • 21. Moss life cycle gametophyte gametangia sporophyte Protonemata sporophyte spores (pre-gametophyte)
  • 22. Sphagnum, or peat moss gametophyte sporophyte
  • 23. Vascular Plants• Vascular plants have • Xylem – transports water • Phloem – transports food • Dominant sporophyte generation• First vascular plants were seedless• Three Groups • Seedless plants • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms
  • 24. Seedless Vascular Plants• Two phyla • Lycophyta – lycophytes • Pterophyta – ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails• Most have true roots and leaves• Still require water for fertilization
  • 25. Pteridophytes Club “moss” Whisk fern Horsetail Fern
  • 26. Hypothesis for the development of leaves• Probably evolved from a flap of stem tissue • Stem had vascular tissue • Microphylls• Macrophylls – larger leaves with branched veins
  • 27. Ferns
  • 28. Life cycle of a fern
  • 29. Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production & sori
  • 30. Sorus (sori): Clusters of sporangia – found on underside of leaves
  • 31. Mature fern sporangium – releasing spores
  • 32. Fern gametophyte
  • 33. Archegonia of fern Flagellated sperm from antheridium fertilize eggs in archegonium zygote
  • 34. Fern sporophytes
  • 35. Evolution of Seed Plants• Reduction of gametophyte continued• Seeds – important means of dispersal• Pollen – eliminated water requirement for fertilization • Pollination• Two clades • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms
  • 36. Gametophyte/ Sporophyte Relationships• Seed plants: further reduced gametophyte• Female gametophyte and embryo protected by parental sporophyte
  • 37. Seed Development• Fertilization initiates the transformation from ovule to seed • Sporophyte embryo • Food supply • Protective coat
  • 38. Seed Dispersal• Seeds have adaptations for dispersal• Wind• Water• Animal
  • 39. Gymnosperms• Four phyla • Ginko • Cycads • Gnetophytes • Conifers• Naked seed – no fruit (ovary)• Seeds develop on surface of sporophylls• Evolved before angiosperms
  • 40. Phylum Coniferophyta Douglas fir Sequoia
  • 41. Phylum Coniferophyta: Frasier Fir
  • 42. Characteristics of Conifers• Cone: reproductive structure • Cluster of sporophylls • Female cones: produce ovules - “pine cones” • Male cones: produce pollen• Seed develops from fertilized ovule – scale of cone• Dominate in areas with short growing season • High latitude or altitude• Most are evergreens• Some have needle-shaped leaves • Adapted for dry conditions • Thick cuticle
  • 43. Life cycle of a pine
  • 44. Pollen cone (male) – produces pollen Pine pollen
  • 45. Pine embryo Embryo (new sporophyte)
  • 46. Angiosperms: Flowering Plants Major Clades:
  • 47. Phylum Anthophyta: Angiosperms• Vascular seed plants• Reproductive structures: flowers, fruits• Most diverse group of plants today• 2 groups Monocots Dicots # Petals Multiples of 3 Multiples of 4 or 5 # Cotyledons 1 2 Vascular bundles Scattered Circle Root Fibrous Tap root
  • 48. Xylem cells in Angiosperms• Trachids • Support • Water transport• Fiber ** • Support• Vessel element ** • More efficient** Evolutionary adaptations of angiosperms
  • 49. Flower Structure: Reproductive Adaptation of Angiosperms
  • 50. Life cycle of an angiosperm
  • 51. Fruit and Seed Dispersal
  • 52. Flower-pollinator relationships