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OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)
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OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)

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Chapter 22 in class presentation.

Chapter 22 in class presentation.

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  • 1. Chapter 22
    Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
  • 2. Endless Forms Most Beautiful
    A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species
    The Origin of Species focused biologists’ attention on the great diversity of organisms
  • 3.
  • 4. Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species
    Evolution can be defined by Darwin’s phrase descent with modification
  • 5. Concept 22.1
    The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species
  • 6. Darwin’s revolutionary ideas were influenced by other scientists’ ideas about Earth and life.
  • 7. Influence of Fossils
    Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata
    Paleontology, largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier
    He advocated catastrophism – boundary between each layer represents a catastrophe.
  • 8.
  • 9. Historical Context of Darwin’s Life and Ideas
  • 10. You should now be able to:
    Describe the contributions to evolutionary theory made by Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lyell, Lamarck, Malthus, and Wallace
    Describe Lamarck’s theories, and explain why they have been rejected
  • 11. Chapter 22.2
    Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life
  • 12. Darwin’s Life
    Always interested in nature
    First studied medicine and then theology
    Took unpaid position as naturalist on the 5-year voyage of the Beagle
  • 13.
  • 14. Focused on Adaptation
  • 15. Path to The Origin of Species
    1844: Wrote “essay” on the origin of species and natural selection.
    1858: Received manuscript from Alfred Russell Wallace.
    1859: Finished and published The Origin of Species
  • 16. The Origin of Species
    Darwin developed two main ideas:
    Descent with modification explains life’s unity and diversity
    Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution
  • 17. Darwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linnaeus
  • 18.
  • 19. Darwin further examined how organisms change through artificial selection
  • 20. Observations
    Members of a population often vary greatly in their traits
    Traits are inherited from parents to offspring
    All species are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can support
    Owing to lack of food or other resources, many of these offspring do not survive
  • 21. Inferences
    Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals
    This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations
  • 22. Natural Selection: A Summary
    Individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals
  • 23. Final Thoughts:
    Note that individuals do not evolve; populations evolve over time
    Natural selection can only increase or decrease heritable traits in a population
    Adaptations vary with different environments
  • 24. You should now be able to:
    Explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification”
    List and explain Darwin’s four observations and two inferences
  • 25. Concept 22.3
    Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence
  • 26. New discoveries continue to fill the gaps identified by Darwin in The Origin of Species
  • 27. Example - HIV:
    The evolution of drug-resistant HIV
  • 28.
  • 29. Natural selection does not create new traits, but edits or selects for traits already present in the population
  • 30. Example – The Fossil Record
    The fossil record provides evidence of the extinction of species, the origin of new groups, and changes within groups over time
  • 31. Transitional Forms
  • 32. Example - Homologies
    Anatomical and molecular
    Homologous structures are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Vestigial structures are remnants of features that served important functions in the organism’s ancestors
  • 36. The Darwinian concept of an evolutionary tree of life can explain homologies
    Evolutionary trees are hypotheses about the relationships among different groups
    Evolutionary trees can be made using different types of data, for example, anatomical and DNA sequence data
  • 37.
  • 38. Convergent Evolution
    Convergent evolution is the evolution of similar, or analogous,features in distantly related groups
  • 39.
  • 40. Biogeography
    The geographic distribution of species
    Islands have many endemic species that are often closely related to species on the nearest mainland or island
    An understanding of continent movement and modern distribution of species allows us to predict when and where different groups evolved
  • 41. You should now be able to:
    Explain why an individual organism cannot evolve
    Describe at least four lines of evidence for evolution by natural selection

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