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  • 1. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
  • 2. Overview: Variations on a Theme • Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind • Genetics is the scientific study of heredity and variation • Heredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next • Variation is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 3. Fig. 13-1
  • 4. Concept 13.1: Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes • In a literal sense, children do not inherit particular physical traits from their parents • It is genes that are actually inherited Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 5. Inheritance of Genes • Genes are the units of heredity, and are made up of segments of DNA • Genes are passed to the next generation through reproductive cells called gametes (sperm and eggs) • Each gene has a specific location called a locus on a certain chromosome • Most DNA is packaged into chromosomes • One set of chromosomes is inherited from each parent Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 6. Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction • In asexual reproduction, one parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis • A clone is a group of genetically identical individuals from the same parent • In sexual reproduction, two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents Video: Hydra BuddingVideo: Hydra Budding Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 7. Fig. 13-2 (a) Hydra (b) Redwoods Parent Bud 0.5 mm
  • 8. Fig. 13-2a (a) Hydra 0.5 mm Bud Parent
  • 9. Fig. 13-2b (b) Redwoods
  • 10. Concept 13.2: Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles • A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 11. Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells • Human somatic cells (any cell other than a gamete) have 23 pairs of chromosomes • A karyotype is an ordered display of the pairs of chromosomes from a cell • The two chromosomes in each pair are called homologous chromosomes, or homologs • Chromosomes in a homologous pair are the same length and carry genes controlling the same inherited characters Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 12. Fig. 13-3 APPLICATION TECHNIQUE Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes 5 µm Centromere Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome
  • 13. Fig. 13-3a APPLICATION
  • 14. Fig. 13-3b TECHNIQUE Pair of homologous replicated chromosomes Centromere Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome 5 µm
  • 15. • The sex chromosomes are called X and Y • Human females have a homologous pair of X chromosomes (XX) • Human males have one X and one Y chromosome • The 22 pairs of chromosomes that do not determine sex are called autosomes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 16. • Each pair of homologous chromosomes includes one chromosome from each parent • The 46 chromosomes in a human somatic cell are two sets of 23: one from the mother and one from the father • A diploid cell (2n) has two sets of chromosomes • For humans, the diploid number is 46 (2n = 46) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 17. • In a cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred, each chromosome is replicated • Each replicated chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 18. Fig. 13-4 Key Maternal set of chromosomes (n = 3) Paternal set of chromosomes (n = 3) 2n = 6 Centromere Two sister chromatids of one replicated chromosome Two nonsister chromatids in a homologous pair Pair of homologous chromosomes (one from each set)
  • 19. • A gamete (sperm or egg) contains a single set of chromosomes, and is haploid (n) • For humans, the haploid number is 23 (n = 23) • Each set of 23 consists of 22 autosomes and a single sex chromosome • In an unfertilized egg (ovum), the sex chromosome is X • In a sperm cell, the sex chromosome may be either X or Y Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 20. • Fertilization is the union of gametes (the sperm and the egg) • The fertilized egg is called a zygote and has one set of chromosomes from each parent • The zygote produces somatic cells by mitosis and develops into an adult Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 21. • At sexual maturity, the ovaries and testes produce haploid gametes • Gametes are the only types of human cells produced by meiosis, rather than mitosis • Meiosis results in one set of chromosomes in each gamete • Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles to maintain chromosome number Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 22. Fig. 13-5 Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Haploid gametes (n = 23) Egg (n) Sperm (n) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Ovary Testis Diploid zygote (2n = 46) Mitosis and development Multicellular diploid adults (2n = 46)
  • 23. The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles • The alternation of meiosis and fertilization is common to all organisms that reproduce sexually • The three main types of sexual life cycles differ in the timing of meiosis and fertilization Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 24. • In animals, meiosis produces gametes, which undergo no further cell division before fertilization • Gametes are the only haploid cells in animals • Gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote that divides by mitosis to develop into a multicellular organism Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 25. Fig. 13-6 Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) n nGametes n n n Mitosis MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION MEIOSIS 2n 2n Zygote 2n Mitosis Diploid multicellular organism (a) Animals Spores Diploid multicellular organism (sporophyte) (b) Plants and some algae 2n Mitosis Gametes Mitosisn n n Zygote FERTILIZATION n n nMitosis Zygote (c) Most fungi and some protists MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION 2n Gametes n n Mitosis Haploid multi- cellular organism (gametophyte) Haploid unicellular or multicellular organism
  • 26. Fig. 13-6a Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Gametesn n n 2n 2n Zygote MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Mitosis Diploid multicellular organism (a) Animals
  • 27. • Plants and some algae exhibit an alternation of generations • This life cycle includes both a diploid and haploid multicellular stage • The diploid organism, called the sporophyte, makes haploid spores by meiosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 28. • Each spore grows by mitosis into a haploid organism called a gametophyte • A gametophyte makes haploid gametes by mitosis • Fertilization of gametes results in a diploid sporophyte Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 29. Fig. 13-6b Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) n n n n n 2n 2n Mitosis Mitosis Mitosis Zygote Spores Gametes MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Diploid multicellular organism (sporophyte) Haploid multi- cellular organism (gametophyte) (b) Plants and some algae
  • 30. • In most fungi and some protists, the only diploid stage is the single-celled zygote; there is no multicellular diploid stage • The zygote produces haploid cells by meiosis • Each haploid cell grows by mitosis into a haploid multicellular organism • The haploid adult produces gametes by mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 31. Fig. 13-6c Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Mitosis Mitosis Gametes Zygote Haploid unicellular or multicellular organism MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION n n n n n 2n (c) Most fungi and some protists
  • 32. • Depending on the type of life cycle, either haploid or diploid cells can divide by mitosis • However, only diploid cells can undergo meiosis • In all three life cycles, the halving and doubling of chromosomes contributes to genetic variation in offspring Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 33. Concept 13.3: Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid • Like mitosis, meiosis is preceded by the replication of chromosomes • Meiosis takes place in two sets of cell divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II • The two cell divisions result in four daughter cells, rather than the two daughter cells in mitosis • Each daughter cell has only half as many chromosomes as the parent cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 34. The Stages of Meiosis • In the first cell division (meiosis I), homologous chromosomes separate • Meiosis I results in two haploid daughter cells with replicated chromosomes; it is called the reductional division • In the second cell division (meiosis II), sister chromatids separate • Meiosis II results in four haploid daughter cells with unreplicated chromosomes; it is called the equational division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 35. Fig. 13-7-1 Interphase Homologous pair of chromosomes in diploid parent cell Chromosomes replicate Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes Sister chromatids Diploid cell with replicated chromosomes
  • 36. Fig. 13-7-2 Interphase Homologous pair of chromosomes in diploid parent cell Chromosomes replicate Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes Sister chromatids Diploid cell with replicated chromosomes Meiosis I Homologous chromosomes separate 1 Haploid cells with replicated chromosomes
  • 37. Fig. 13-7-3 Interphase Homologous pair of chromosomes in diploid parent cell Chromosomes replicate Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes Sister chromatids Diploid cell with replicated chromosomes Meiosis I Homologous chromosomes separate 1 Haploid cells with replicated chromosomes Meiosis I I 2 Sister chromatids separate Haploid cells with unreplicated chromosomes
  • 38. • Meiosis I is preceded by interphase, in which chromosomes are replicated to form sister chromatids • The sister chromatids are genetically identical and joined at the centromere • The single centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes BioFlix: MeiosisBioFlix: Meiosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 39. Fig. 13-8 Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I and Cytokinesis Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II and Cytokinesis Centrosome (with centriole pair) Sister chromatids Chiasmata Spindle Homologous chromosomes Fragments of nuclear envelope Centromere (with kinetochore) Metaphase plate Microtubule attached to kinetochore Sister chromatids remain attached Homologous chromosomes separate Cleavage furrow Sister chromatids separate Haploid daughter cells forming
  • 40. • Division in meiosis I occurs in four phases: – Prophase I – Metaphase I – Anaphase I – Telophase I and cytokinesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 41. Metaphase I Fig. 13-8a Prophase I Anaphase I Telophase I and Cytokinesis Centrosome (with centriole pair) Sister chromatids Chiasmata Spindle Homologous chromosomes Fragments of nuclear envelope Centromere (with kinetochore) Metaphase plate Microtubule attached to kinetochore Sister chromatids remain attached Homologous chromosomes separate Cleavage furrow
  • 42. Prophase I • Prophase I typically occupies more than 90% of the time required for meiosis • Chromosomes begin to condense • In synapsis, homologous chromosomes loosely pair up, aligned gene by gene Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 43. • In crossing over, nonsister chromatids exchange DNA segments • Each pair of chromosomes forms a tetrad, a group of four chromatids • Each tetrad usually has one or more chiasmata, X-shaped regions where crossing over occurred Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 44. Metaphase I • In metaphase I, tetrads line up at the metaphase plate, with one chromosome facing each pole • Microtubules from one pole are attached to the kinetochore of one chromosome of each tetrad • Microtubules from the other pole are attached to the kinetochore of the other chromosome Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 45. Fig. 13-8b Prophase I Metaphase I Centrosome (with centriole pair) Sister chromatids Chiasmata Spindle Centromere (with kinetochore) Metaphase plate Homologous chromosomes Fragments of nuclear envelope Microtubule attached to kinetochore
  • 46. Anaphase I • In anaphase I, pairs of homologous chromosomes separate • One chromosome moves toward each pole, guided by the spindle apparatus • Sister chromatids remain attached at the centromere and move as one unit toward the pole Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 47. Telophase I and Cytokinesis • In the beginning of telophase I, each half of the cell has a haploid set of chromosomes; each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids • Cytokinesis usually occurs simultaneously, forming two haploid daughter cells Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 48. • In animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms; in plant cells, a cell plate forms • No chromosome replication occurs between the end of meiosis I and the beginning of meiosis II because the chromosomes are already replicated Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 49. Fig. 13-8c Anaphase I Telophase I and Cytokinesis Sister chromatids remain attached Homologous chromosomes separate Cleavage furrow
  • 50. • Division in meiosis II also occurs in four phases: – Prophase II – Metaphase II – Anaphase II – Telophase II and cytokinesis • Meiosis II is very similar to mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 51. Fig. 13-8d Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II and Cytokinesis Sister chromatids separate Haploid daughter cells forming
  • 52. Prophase II • In prophase II, a spindle apparatus forms • In late prophase II, chromosomes (each still composed of two chromatids) move toward the metaphase plate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 53. Metaphase II • In metaphase II, the sister chromatids are arranged at the metaphase plate • Because of crossing over in meiosis I, the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are no longer genetically identical • The kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to microtubules extending from opposite poles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 54. Fig. 13-8e Prophase II Metaphase II
  • 55. Anaphase II • In anaphase II, the sister chromatids separate • The sister chromatids of each chromosome now move as two newly individual chromosomes toward opposite poles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 56. Telophase II and Cytokinesis • In telophase II, the chromosomes arrive at opposite poles • Nuclei form, and the chromosomes begin decondensing Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 57. • Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasm • At the end of meiosis, there are four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes • Each daughter cell is genetically distinct from the others and from the parent cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 58. Fig. 13-8f Anaphase II Telephase II and Cytokinesis Sister chromatids separate Haploid daughter cells forming
  • 59. A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis • Mitosis conserves the number of chromosome sets, producing cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell • Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes sets from two (diploid) to one (haploid), producing cells that differ genetically from each other and from the parent cell • The mechanism for separating sister chromatids is virtually identical in meiosis II and mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 60. Fig. 13-9 MITOSIS MEIOSIS MEIOSIS I Prophase I Chiasma Homologous chromosome pair Chromosome replication Parent cell 2n = 6 Chromosome replication Replicated chromosome Prophase Metaphase Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Haploid n = 3 Daughter cells of meiosis I Anaphase Telophase 2n 2n Daughter cells of mitosis n n n n MEIOSIS I I Daughter cells of meiosis I I SUMMARY Meiosis Occurs during interphase before meiosis I begins Two, each including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase Occurs during prophase I along with crossing over between nonsister chromatids; resulting chiasmata hold pairs together due to sister chromatid cohesion Four, each haploid (n), containing half as many chromosomes as the parent cell; genetically different from the parent cell and from each other Produces gametes; reduces number of chromosomes by half and introduces genetic variability amoung the gametes Mitosis Occurs during interphase before mitosis begins One, including prophase, metaphase, anahase, and telophase Does not occur Two, each diploid (2n) and genetically identical to the parent cell Enables multicellular adult to arise from zygote; produces cells for growth, repair, and, in some species, asexual reproduction Property DNA replication Number of divisions Synapsis of homologous chromosomes Number of daughter cells and genetic composition Role in the animal body
  • 61. Fig. 13-9a MITOSIS MEIOSIS MEIOSIS I Prophase I Chiasma Chromosome replication Homologous chromosome pair Chromosome replication 2n = 6 Parent cell Prophase Replicated chromosome Metaphase Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Haploid n = 3 Daughter cells of meiosis I MEIOSIS I I Daughter cells of meiosis I I nnnn 2n2n Daughter cells of mitosis Anaphase Telophase
  • 62. Fig. 13-9b SUMMARY MeiosisMitosisProperty DNA replication Number of divisions Occurs during interphase before mitosis begins One, including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase Synapsis of homologous chromosomes Does not occur Number of daughter cells and genetic composition Two, each diploid (2n) and genetically identical to the parent cell Role in the animal body Enables multicellular adult to arise from zygote; produces cells for growth, repair, and, in some species, asexual reproduction Occurs during interphase before meiosis I begins Two, each including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase Occurs during prophase I along with crossing over between nonsister chromatids; resulting chiasmata hold pairs together due to sister chromatid cohesion Four, each haploid (n), containing half as many chromosomes as the parent cell; genetically different from the parent cell and from each other Produces gametes; reduces number of chromosomes by half and introduces genetic variability among the gametes
  • 63. • Three events are unique to meiosis, and all three occur in meiosis l: – Synapsis and crossing over in prophase I: Homologous chromosomes physically connect and exchange genetic information – At the metaphase plate, there are paired homologous chromosomes (tetrads), instead of individual replicated chromosomes – At anaphase I, it is homologous chromosomes, instead of sister chromatids, that separate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 64. • Sister chromatid cohesion allows sister chromatids of a single chromosome to stay together through meiosis I • Protein complexes called cohesins are responsible for this cohesion • In mitosis, cohesins are cleaved at the end of metaphase • In meiosis, cohesins are cleaved along the chromosome arms in anaphase I (separation of homologs) and at the centromeres in anaphase II (separation of sister chromatids) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 65. Fig. 13-10 EXPERIMENT RESULTS Shugoshin+ (normal)+ Spore case Fluorescent label Metaphase I Shugoshin– Anaphase I Metaphase II Anaphase II Mature spores OR Spore Two of three possible arrange- ments of labeled chromosomes Shugoshin+ Shugoshin– Sporecases(%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  • 66. Fig. 13-10a EXPERIMENT Shugoshin+ (normal) Spore case Fluorescent label Metaphase I Anaphase I Metaphase II Anaphase II Mature spores Spore OR Two of three possible arrange- ments of labeled chromosomes Shugoshin– ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?
  • 67. Fig. 13-10b RESULTS Shugoshin+ Shugoshin– Sporecases(%) 100 80 60 40 20 0
  • 68. Concept 13.4: Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles contributes to evolution • Mutations (changes in an organism’s DNA) are the original source of genetic diversity • Mutations create different versions of genes called alleles • Reshuffling of alleles during sexual reproduction produces genetic variation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 69. Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring • The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization is responsible for most of the variation that arises in each generation • Three mechanisms contribute to genetic variation: – Independent assortment of chromosomes – Crossing over – Random fertilization Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 70. Independent Assortment of Chromosomes • Homologous pairs of chromosomes orient randomly at metaphase I of meiosis • In independent assortment, each pair of chromosomes sorts maternal and paternal homologues into daughter cells independently of the other pairs Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 71. • The number of combinations possible when chromosomes assort independently into gametes is 2n , where n is the haploid number • For humans (n = 23), there are more than 8 million (223 ) possible combinations of chromosomes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 72. Fig. 13-11-1 Possibility 1 Possibility 2 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I
  • 73. Fig. 13-11-2 Possibility 1 Possibility 2 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I Metaphase II
  • 74. Fig. 13-11-3 Possibility 1 Possibility 2 Two equally probable arrangements of chromosomes at metaphase I Metaphase II Daughter cells Combination 1 Combination 2 Combination 3 Combination 4
  • 75. Crossing Over • Crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes, which combine genes inherited from each parent • Crossing over begins very early in prophase I, as homologous chromosomes pair up gene by gene Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 76. • In crossing over, homologous portions of two nonsister chromatids trade places • Crossing over contributes to genetic variation by combining DNA from two parents into a single chromosome Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 77. Fig. 13-12-1 Prophase I of meiosis Pair of homologs Nonsister chromatids held together during synapsis
  • 78. Fig. 13-12-2 Prophase I of meiosis Pair of homologs Nonsister chromatids held together during synapsis Chiasma Centromere TEM
  • 79. Fig. 13-12-3 Prophase I of meiosis Pair of homologs Nonsister chromatids held together during synapsis Chiasma Centromere Anaphase I TEM
  • 80. Fig. 13-12-4 Prophase I of meiosis Pair of homologs Nonsister chromatids held together during synapsis Chiasma Centromere Anaphase I Anaphase II TEM
  • 81. Fig. 13-12-5 Prophase I of meiosis Pair of homologs Nonsister chromatids held together during synapsis Chiasma Centromere Anaphase I Anaphase II Daughter cells Recombinant chromosomes TEM
  • 82. Random Fertilization • Random fertilization adds to genetic variation because any sperm can fuse with any ovum (unfertilized egg) • The fusion of two gametes (each with 8.4 million possible chromosome combinations from independent assortment) produces a zygote with any of about 70 trillion diploid combinations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 83. • Crossing over adds even more variation • Each zygote has a unique genetic identity Animation: Genetic VariationAnimation: Genetic Variation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 84. The Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Within Populations • Natural selection results in the accumulation of genetic variations favored by the environment • Sexual reproduction contributes to the genetic variation in a population, which originates from mutations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  • 85. Fig. 13-UN1 Prophase I: Each homologous pair undergoes synapsis and crossing over between nonsister chromatids. Metaphase I: Chromosomes line up as homolo- gous pairs on the metaphase plate. Anaphase I: Homologs separate from each other; sister chromatids remain joined at the centromere.
  • 86. Fig. 13-UN2 F H
  • 87. Fig. 13-UN3
  • 88. Fig. 13-UN4
  • 89. You should now be able to: 1. Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid 2. Describe the events that characterize each phase of meiosis 3. Describe three events that occur during meiosis I but not mitosis 4. Name and explain the three events that contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings