Biology is the only subject in which  multiplication  is the same thing as  division … 2007-2008
The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division 2007-2008
Where it all began… You started as a cell smaller than  a period at the end of a sentence…
Going from egg to baby….   the original fertilized egg has to divide…  and divide… and divide… and divide… Getting from th...
For reproduction   asexual reproduction one-celled organisms For growth from fertilized egg to  multi-celled organism  For...
Making new cells  Nucleus chromosomes DNA Cytoskeleton centrioles in animals microtubule spindle fibers
Function protects DNA Structure nuclear envelope double membrane membrane fused in spots to create  pores   allows large m...
Cytoskeleton  Function structural support   maintains shape of cell provides anchorage for organelles protein fibers micro...
Cytoskeleton  actin microtubule nuclei
Centrioles  Cell division in animal cells, pair of  centrioles   organize  microtubules spindle fibers   guide chromosomes...
End of the Tour
Getting the right stuff  What is passed on to daughter cells? exact copy of genetic material =  DNA mitosis organelles, cy...
Overview of mitosis interphase prophase (pro-metaphase) metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis I.P.M.A.T.
Interphase 90% of cell life cycle cell doing its “everyday job” produce RNA, synthesize proteins/enzymes prepares for dupl...
Cell cycle Cell has a “life cycle” cell is formed from  a mitotic division cell grows & matures to divide again cell g...
Interphase Divided into 3 phases: G 1   = 1 st   G ap ( G rowth) cell doing its “everyday job” cell grows S   = DNA  S ynt...
Interphase Nucleus well-defined DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers Prepares for mitosis  replicates chromosome DN...
Synthesis phase of Interphase dividing cell replicates DNA must separate DNA copies correctly to 2 daughter cells human ce...
Organizing DNA DNA is organized in  chromosomes double helix DNA molecule wrapped around  histone proteins like thread on ...
Copying DNA & packaging it… After DNA duplication, chromatin  condenses coiling & folding to make a smaller packag...
double-stranded mitotic human chromosomes
Mitotic Chromosome  Duplicated chromosome  2  sister chromatids narrow at  centromeres contain identical  copies of origin...
Mitosis  Dividing cell’s DNA between  2 daughter nuclei “ dance of the chromosomes” 4 phases prophase metaphase anaphase t...
Prophase  Chromatin condenses  visible chromosomes chromatids Centrioles  move to opposite poles of cell  animal cell Prot...
Transition to Metaphase  Prometaphase spindle fibers   attach to centromeres   creating  kinetochores microtubules attach ...
Metaphase  Chromosomes align along middle of cell metaphase plate   meta = middle  spindle fibers coordinate movement help...
Anaphase  Sister chromatids separate  at kinetochores  move to opposite poles pulled at centromeres pulled by motor protei...
Separation of chromatids In anaphase, proteins holding together sister chromatids are inactivated separate to become indiv...
Kinetochores use motor proteins that “walk” chromosome along attached microtubule microtubule shortens by dismantling  at ...
Telophase Chromosomes arrive at opposite poles daughter nuclei form   nucleoli form chromosomes disperse   no longer visib...
Cytokinesis Animals constriction belt of  actin  microfilaments around equator of cell cleavage furrow  forms splits cell ...
Cytokinesis in Animals (play  Cells Alive  movies here) (play  Thinkwell  movies here)
Mitosis in whitefish blastula
Mitosis in animal cells
Cytokinesis in Plants Plants cell plate  forms vesicles line up at equator derived from Golgi vesicles fuse to form 2 cell...
Cytokinesis in plant cell
Mitosis in plant cell
onion root tip
Evolution of mitosis Mitosis in eukaryotes  likely evolved from  binary fission  in bacteria single circular chromosome no...
Evolution of  mitosis A possible progression of mechanisms intermediate between binary fission & mitosis seen in moder...
Dinoflagellates  algae “ red tide” bioluminescence
Diatoms  microscopic algae marine freshwater
2007-2008 Any Questions??
Ghosts of Lectures Past (storage) 2007-2008
Control of Cell Cycle
Kinetochore  Each chromatid  has own kinetochore proteins microtubules  attach to kinetochore proteins
Chromosome structure nucleosome DNA histone DNA double helix chromosome rosettes of chromatin loops scaffold protein chrom...
Phases of a dividing  cell’s life  interphase cell grows replicates  chromosomes produces new organelles, enzymes, membran...
Substitute Slides  for Student Print version (for student note-taking) 2007-2008
And now look at you… How did you get from there to here?
Chapter 12 (Part 1)
Chapter 12 (Part 1)
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Chapter 12 (Part 1)

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Chapter 12 (Part 1)

  1. 1. Biology is the only subject in which multiplication is the same thing as division … 2007-2008
  2. 2. The Cell Cycle: Cell Growth, Cell Division 2007-2008
  3. 3. Where it all began… You started as a cell smaller than a period at the end of a sentence…
  4. 4. Going from egg to baby…. the original fertilized egg has to divide… and divide… and divide… and divide… Getting from there to here…
  5. 5. For reproduction asexual reproduction one-celled organisms For growth from fertilized egg to multi-celled organism For repair & renewal replace cells that die from normal wear & tear or from injury Why do cells divide? amoeba
  6. 6. Making new cells Nucleus chromosomes DNA Cytoskeleton centrioles in animals microtubule spindle fibers
  7. 7. Function protects DNA Structure nuclear envelope double membrane membrane fused in spots to create pores allows large macromolecules to pass through Nucleus What kind of molecules need to pass through? nuclear pores nuclear pore nuclear envelope nucleolus histone protein chromosome DNA
  8. 8. Cytoskeleton Function structural support maintains shape of cell provides anchorage for organelles protein fibers microfilaments , intermediate filaments , microtubules motility cell locomotion cilia , flagella , etc. regulation organizes structures & activities of cell
  9. 9. Cytoskeleton actin microtubule nuclei
  10. 10. Centrioles Cell division in animal cells, pair of centrioles organize microtubules spindle fibers guide chromosomes in mitosis
  11. 11. End of the Tour
  12. 12. Getting the right stuff What is passed on to daughter cells? exact copy of genetic material = DNA mitosis organelles, cytoplasm, cell membrane, enzymes cytokinesis chromosomes (stained orange) in kangaroo rat epithelial cell  notice cytoskeleton fibers
  13. 13. Overview of mitosis interphase prophase (pro-metaphase) metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinesis I.P.M.A.T.
  14. 14. Interphase 90% of cell life cycle cell doing its “everyday job” produce RNA, synthesize proteins/enzymes prepares for duplication if triggered I’m working here ! Time to divide & multiply !
  15. 15. Cell cycle Cell has a “life cycle” cell is formed from a mitotic division cell grows & matures to divide again cell grows & matures to never divide again G 1 , S, G 2 , M G 1  G 0 epithelial cells, blood cells, stem cells liver cells brain / nerve cells muscle cells
  16. 16. Interphase Divided into 3 phases: G 1 = 1 st G ap ( G rowth) cell doing its “everyday job” cell grows S = DNA S ynthesis copies chromosomes G 2 = 2 nd G ap ( G rowth) prepares for division cell grows (more) produces organelles, proteins, membranes G 0 signal to divide
  17. 17. Interphase Nucleus well-defined DNA loosely packed in long chromatin fibers Prepares for mitosis replicates chromosome DNA & proteins produces proteins & organelles green = key features
  18. 18. Synthesis phase of Interphase dividing cell replicates DNA must separate DNA copies correctly to 2 daughter cells human cell duplicates ~3 meters DNA each daughter cell gets complete identical copy error rate = ~1 per 100 million bases 3 billion base pairs in mammalian genome ~30 errors per cell cycle mutations (to somatic (body) cells ) S phase: Copying / Replicating DNA
  19. 19. Organizing DNA DNA is organized in chromosomes double helix DNA molecule wrapped around histone proteins like thread on spools DNA-protein complex = chromatin organized into long thin fiber condensed further during mitosis DNA histones chromatin duplicated mitotic chromosome ACTGGTCAGGCAATGTC double stranded chromosome
  20. 20. Copying DNA & packaging it… After DNA duplication, chromatin condenses coiling & folding to make a smaller package DNA chromatin mitotic chromosome
  21. 21. double-stranded mitotic human chromosomes
  22. 22. Mitotic Chromosome Duplicated chromosome 2 sister chromatids narrow at centromeres contain identical copies of original DNA homologous = “same information” single-stranded double-stranded homologous chromosomes homologous chromosomes sister chromatids
  23. 23. Mitosis Dividing cell’s DNA between 2 daughter nuclei “ dance of the chromosomes” 4 phases prophase metaphase anaphase telophase
  24. 24. Prophase Chromatin condenses visible chromosomes chromatids Centrioles move to opposite poles of cell animal cell Protein fibers cross cell to form mitotic spindle microtubules actin, myosin coordinates movement of chromosomes Nucleolus disappears Nuclear membrane breaks down green = key features
  25. 25. Transition to Metaphase Prometaphase spindle fibers attach to centromeres creating kinetochores microtubules attach at kinetochores connect centromeres to centrioles chromosomes begin moving green = key features
  26. 26. Metaphase Chromosomes align along middle of cell metaphase plate meta = middle spindle fibers coordinate movement helps to ensure chromosomes separate properly so each new nucleus receives only 1 copy of each chromosome green = key features
  27. 27. Anaphase Sister chromatids separate at kinetochores move to opposite poles pulled at centromeres pulled by motor proteins “walking”along microtubules actin, myosin increased production of ATP by mitochondria Poles move farther apart polar microtubules lengthen green = key features
  28. 28. Separation of chromatids In anaphase, proteins holding together sister chromatids are inactivated separate to become individual chromosomes 2 chromosomes 1 chromosome 2 chromatids single-stranded double-stranded
  29. 29. Kinetochores use motor proteins that “walk” chromosome along attached microtubule microtubule shortens by dismantling at kinetochore (chromosome) end Chromosome movement
  30. 30. Telophase Chromosomes arrive at opposite poles daughter nuclei form nucleoli form chromosomes disperse no longer visible under light microscope Spindle fibers disperse Cytokinesis begins cell division green = key features
  31. 31. Cytokinesis Animals constriction belt of actin microfilaments around equator of cell cleavage furrow forms splits cell in two like tightening a draw string
  32. 32. Cytokinesis in Animals (play Cells Alive movies here) (play Thinkwell movies here)
  33. 33. Mitosis in whitefish blastula
  34. 34. Mitosis in animal cells
  35. 35. Cytokinesis in Plants Plants cell plate forms vesicles line up at equator derived from Golgi vesicles fuse to form 2 cell membranes new cell wall laid down between membranes new cell wall fuses with existing cell wall
  36. 36. Cytokinesis in plant cell
  37. 37. Mitosis in plant cell
  38. 38. onion root tip
  39. 39. Evolution of mitosis Mitosis in eukaryotes likely evolved from binary fission in bacteria single circular chromosome no membrane-bound organelles Origin of replication chromosome: double-stranded DNA replication of DNA elongation of cell cell pinches in two ring of proteins
  40. 40. Evolution of mitosis A possible progression of mechanisms intermediate between binary fission & mitosis seen in modern organisms protists dinoflagellates protists diatoms eukaryotes yeast eukaryotes animals prokaryotes (bacteria)
  41. 41. Dinoflagellates algae “ red tide” bioluminescence
  42. 42. Diatoms microscopic algae marine freshwater
  43. 43. 2007-2008 Any Questions??
  44. 44. Ghosts of Lectures Past (storage) 2007-2008
  45. 45. Control of Cell Cycle
  46. 46. Kinetochore Each chromatid has own kinetochore proteins microtubules attach to kinetochore proteins
  47. 47. Chromosome structure nucleosome DNA histone DNA double helix chromosome rosettes of chromatin loops scaffold protein chromatin loop 30 nm
  48. 48. Phases of a dividing cell’s life interphase cell grows replicates chromosomes produces new organelles, enzymes, membranes… G 1 , S, G 2 mitotic phase cell separates & divides chromosomes mitosis cell divides cytoplasm & organelles cytokinesis Cell Division cycle G 2 S G 1 M metaphase prophase anaphase telophase interphase (G 1 , S, G 2 phases) mitosis (M) cytokinesis (C) C
  49. 49. Substitute Slides for Student Print version (for student note-taking) 2007-2008
  50. 50. And now look at you… How did you get from there to here?

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