Cell Theory Notes
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Cell Theory Notes Cell Theory Notes Presentation Transcript

  • The cell theory
    • 1. All living things are composed of cells.
    • 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
    • 3. New cells are produced from existing cells.
  • Characteristics of all cells
    • Surrounded by cell membrane
    • Contain DNA
    • Contain cytoplasm
  • Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  • Prokaryotic
    • No nucleus
    • Few internal structures- have simple ribosomes
    • Smaller and simpler than eukaroytic cells
    • One-celled organisms, Bacteria
    http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
  • Prokaryotic Cells
    • Some use flagellum for locomotion
      • threadlike structures protruding from cell surface
    Bacterial cell wall Flagellin Rotary motor Sheath
  • Eukaryotic
    • Have a membrane bound nucleus
    • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes
    • Most living organisms – lots of variety
    • Larger and more complex than prokaryotes
    http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
    • Unicellular Organisms
    • Multicellular Organisms
    • Levels of Organization
        • Cells
        • Tissues
        • Organs
        • Organ Systems
    Section 7- 4 Section Outline Go to Section: DIVERSITY OF LIFE
  • Cell Wall
    • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria
    • Supports & protects cells
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Cell Membrane
    • Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell
    • Double layer
    • Plasma Membrane = selectively permeable boundary between the cell and the environment
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Nucleus
    • Directs cell activities
    • Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane
    • Contains genetic material - DNA
  • Nuclear Membrane
    • Surrounds nucleus
    • Made of two layers
    • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Chromosomes/Chromatin
    • In nucleus
    • Made of DNA and protein
    • Contain instructions for traits & characteristics
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Nucleolus
    • Inside nucleus
    • Makes ribosomes which then leave the nucleus
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Mitochondrion
  • Mitochondria
    • Produces energy through chemical reactions – cellular respiration
    • Converts glucose into ATP
    • Cristae – inner membrane
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Chloroplast
    • Found in plant cells
    • Contains green chlorophyll
    • Where photosynthesis takes place
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Vacuoles
    • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal
    • Contains water solution
    • Help plants maintain shape- large central vacuole
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Moves materials around in cell
    • Smooth type: lacks ribosomes
    • Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Cytomembrane System
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) = a system of tubes and sacs formed by membranes (an enclosed space)
      • a) Rough = with bound ribosomes
      • --transports proteins to the Golgi body
      • Smooth = without bound ribosomes
      • --functions in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification
  • Lysosome
    • Digestive sac for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
    • Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal
    • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Centrioles
    • Assemble microtubules during cell division
    • Barrel shaped – pairs
    • Found in animal cells
  • Golgi Bodies
    • Protein 'packaging plant’
    • Modifies protein
      • Attach carbohydrates and lipids to the protein
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Vesicles move from ER to Golgi
  • Ribosomes
    • Each cell contains thousands
    • Make proteins
    • Found on Rough ER & floating throughout the cell
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • Cytoskeleton Actin Microtubules Intermediate filaments
  • Cytoskeleton
    • Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles
      • Microfilaments
        • Actin
        • Cell movement
        • Support of cell
      • Microtubules
        • Hollow tubes
        • Movement of organelles
        • Forms cilia, flagella, centrioles
  • Section 7-2 Figure 7-7 Cytoskeleton Go to Section: Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Microtubule Microfilament Ribosomes Michondrion
  • “ Typical” Animal Cell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu /~ acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
  • “ Typical” Plant Cell http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif
  • Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cell membrane Ribosomes Cell wall Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Animal Cells Plant Cells Lysosomes Cell membrane Ribosomes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Section 7-2 Venn Diagrams Go to Section: Cell Wall Chloroplasts