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Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
Biology_Cell Biology
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Biology_Cell Biology

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  • 1. Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life’s WorkAP Biology
  • 2. bacteria Types of cells cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cellsRegents Biology
  • 3. Cell size comparison Animal cell most bacteria Bacterial cell  1-10 microns eukaryotic cells  10-100 microns  micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meterRegents Biology  diameter of human hair = ~20 microns
  • 4. Why study cells?  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Bodies  bodies are made up of cells  cells do all the work of life!Regents Biology
  • 5. The Work of Life  What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live…  “breathe”  gas exchange: O2 in vs. CO2 out  eat  take in & digest food  make energy  ATP ATP  build molecules  proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids  remove wastes  control internal conditions  homeostasis  respond to external environment  build more cells  growth, repair, reproduction & developmentRegents Biology
  • 6. The Jobs of Cells  Cells have 3 main jobs  make energy  need energy for all activities Our organelles  need to clean up waste produced do all these jobs! while making energy  make proteins  proteins do all the work in a cell, so we need lots of them  make more cells  for growth  to replace damaged or diseased cellsRegents Biology
  • 7. Organelles  Organelles do the work of cells  each structure has a job to do  keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive They’re like mini-organs!Regents Biology Model Animal Cell
  • 8. 1. Cells need power!  Making energy  to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must…  take in food & digest it  take in oxygen (O2) ATP  make ATP  remove waste  organelles that do this work…  cell membrane  lysosomes  vacuoles & vesicles  mitochondriaRegents Biology
  • 9. phosphate Cell membrane “head” Function  separates cell from outside  controls what enters or leaves cell lipid “tail”  O2, CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste  recognizes signals from other cells  allows communication between cells Structure  double layer of fat  phospholipid bilayer  receptor molecules  proteinsRegents Biology
  • 10. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding organelles in placecell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 11. Vacuoles & vesicles  Function  moving material around cell  storagesmall food  Structure particle  membrane sac vacuole filled w/ digestive enzymes vesicle vesicle filled w/ digested nutrientsRegents Biology
  • 12. Food & water storage food vacuole plant cellscentral vacuole animal cells contractileRegents Biology vacuole
  • 13. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding organelles in placevacuole & vesiclestransport inside cellsstoragecell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 14.  Function Lysosomes  digest food  used to make energy  clean up & recycle  digest broken organelles  Structure  membrane sac of lysosomes digestive enzymes digesting broken organellessmall food vacuole particle digesting foodRegents Biology
  • 15. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recyclingtransport inside cellsstoragecell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 16. Mitochondria Function  make ATP energy from cellular respiration  sugar + O2  ATP  fuels the work of life Structure ATP  double membrane in both animal & plant cellsRegents Biology
  • 17. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recyclingtransport inside cellsstoragemitochondriamake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 18. Plants make energy two ways! Mitochondria  make energy from sugar + O2 ATP  cellular respiration  sugar + O2  ATP Chloroplasts  make energy + sugar from sunlight  photosynthesis sugar  sunlight + CO2  ATP & sugar  ATP = active energy  sugar = stored energy ATP  build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugarsRegents Biology
  • 19. Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplastRegents Biology
  • 20. cytoplasmjelly-like material around organelles central vacuole storage: food, water or wastemitochondria cell wallmake ATP in support cellular respirationcell membrane chloroplastcell boundary make ATP & sugars incontrols movement photosynthesis of materials in & out lysosomerecognizes signalsRegents Biology digestion & clean up
  • 21. 2. Cells need workers = proteins!  Making proteins  to run daily life & growth, the cell must…  read genes (DNA)  build proteins  structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)  enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)  signals (hormones) & receptors  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  ribosomes  endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Golgi apparatusRegents Biology
  • 22. Proteins do all the work! one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work! structural enzymes signals receptors DNA proteins cellsRegents Biology
  • 23. Nucleus  Function  control center of cell  protects DNA  instructions for building proteins  Structure  nuclear membrane  nucleolus  ribosome factory  chromosomes  DNARegents Biology
  • 24. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome nucleolus organelles in place food digestion produces garbage disposal & ribosomesvacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell chromosomes DNAmitochondriamake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 25. Ribosomes  Function  protein factories  read instructions to build proteins from DNA  Structure  some free in cytoplasm  some attached to ER Ribosomes on ERRegents Biology
  • 26. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome nucleolus organelles in place food digestion produces garbage disposal & ribosomesvacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell ribosomesmitochondria build proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 27. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Function  works on proteins  helps complete the proteins after ribosome builds them  makes membranes  Structure  rough ER  ribosomes attached  works on proteins  smooth ER  makes membranesRegents Biology
  • 28. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell ribosomesmitochondria builds proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundary ERcontrols movement works on proteins of materials in & out makes membranesrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 29. Golgi Apparatus  Function  finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins  like UPS headquarters  shipping & receiving department  ships proteins in vesicles vesicles  “UPS trucks” carrying proteins  Structure  membrane sacsRegents Biology transport vesicles
  • 30. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell ribosomesmitochondria builds proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2 Golgi apparatuscell membrane finishes, packagescell boundary ER & ships proteinscontrols movement helps finish proteins of materials in & out makes membranesrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 31. nucleus endoplasmic reticulum protein DNA on its way! TO: RNA vesicle TO: TO: vesicle ribosomes TO: protein finished protein Golgi apparatus Making ProteinsRegents Biology
  • 32. nucleolus make ribosomes endoplasmic reticulumnucleus processes proteinscontrol cell makes membranesprotects DNA ribosomescytoplasm make proteinsjelly-like material around organelles central vacuoleGolgi apparatus storage: food,finish & ship water or waste proteinsmitochondria cell wallmake ATP in support cellular respirationcell membrane chloroplastcell boundary make ATP & sugars incontrols movement photosynthesis of materials in & out lysosomerecognizes signalsRegents Biology digestion & clean up
  • 33. 3. Cells need to make more cells!  Making more cells  to replace, repair & grow, the cell must…  copy their DNA  make extra organelles  divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new “daughter” cells  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  centriolesRegents Biology
  • 34. Centrioles  Function  help coordinate cell division  only in animal cells  Structure  one pair in each cellRegents Biology
  • 35. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cellcentriolescell division ribosomesmitochondria builds proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2 Golgi apparatuscell membrane finishes, packagescell boundary ER & ships proteinscontrols movement helps finish proteins of materials in & out makes membranesrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  • 36. Cell Summary  Cells have 3 main jobs  make energy  need food + O2  cellular respiration & photosynthesis  need to remove wastes Our organelles do all those  make proteins jobs!  need instructions from DNA  need to chain together amino acids & “finish” & “ship” the protein  make more cells  need to copy DNA & divide it up to daughter cellsRegents Biology
  • 37. That’s my cellular story… Any Questions?AP Biology 2009-2010

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