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Biology Cell Structure and Function
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Biology Cell Structure and Function

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  • 1. CELLS: STRUCTUREAND FUNCTIONChapter 7.1, 7.2 & 7.4
  • 2. Discovery of the cell • Robert Hooke – early microscope, thin layer of cork, “cells” • Anton van Leeuwenhoek – observed pond water – small living world • Schleiden – all plants are made of cells • Schwann – all animals are made of cells • Virchow – cells come from existing cellsGo toSection:
  • 3. The cell theory1. All living things are composed of cells.2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.3. New cells are produced from existing cells.
  • 4. Characteristics of all cells• Surrounded by cell membrane(plasma)• Contain DNA – genetic material(blueprint)• Contain cytoplasm
  • 5. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant StemBacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
  • 6. Prokaryotic• No nucleus (nucleoid region)• Few internal structures - have simple ribosomes• Smaller & simpler than eukaroytic cells• One-celled organisms• Ex. Bacteriahttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
  • 7. Prokaryotic Cells• Some use flagellum for locomotion • threadlike structures protruding from cell surface Bacterial cell wall Rotary motor Flagellin Sheath
  • 8. Eukaryotic • Have a membrane bound nucleus, control center that holds DNA (genetic material) • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes (small organs) • Most living organisms – lots of variety • Larger & more complex than prokaryotic cellshttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
  • 9. Diversity of Life • Unicellular • Levels of Organisms Organization • 1 cell • Cells • Ex. Bacteria, Amoeba • Tissues • Organs • Multicellular • Organ Systems Organisms • 2 or more cells • Ex. Plants & AnimalsGo toSection:
  • 10. Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells• Plant Cells • Animal Cells • Chloroplasts • Lysosome • Large Central • Centrioles Vacuole • Cell Wall
  • 11. ORGANELLESStructure & Function
  • 12. Cell Membrane / Plasma • Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in & out of the cell • Double layer (Lipid Bilayer) • AKA - Plasma Membrane • Selectively permeable boundary between the cell and the environmenthttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html • All cells have this!!
  • 13. Cell Membrane / Plasma
  • 14. Nucleus• Directs cell activities• Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane• Contains genetic material - DNA• Nuclear Membrane • Surrounds nucleus • Made of two layers • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  • 15. Chromosomes/Chromatin • In nucleus • Made of DNA & protein • Contain instructions for traits & characteristics • Contains instructions for making proteinshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 16. Nucleolus• Inside nucleus• Makes ribosomes which then leave the nucleushttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 17. Ribosomes• Each cell contains thousands• Make proteins (site for protein synthesis)• Found on Rough ER & floating throughout the cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum • A system of tubes & sacs formed by membranes (an enclosed space) • Moves materials around inside of the cell • Smooth: lacks ribosomes • Lipid synthesis, drug detoxifcation • Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface • Transports proteins to the Golgi http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html body
  • 19. Golgi Bodies • Protein “packaging plant” • Modifies protein • Attach lipids & carbohydrates to the proteinhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 20. Vesicles move from ER to Golgi
  • 21. Mitochondria• Produces energy through chemical reactions – cellular respiration• Converts glucose into ATP• Cristae – inner membrane• Matrix – inner membrane spacehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 22. Lysosome • Digestive sac for proteins, fats, & carbohydrates • Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodeshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 23. CytoskeletonMicrotubulesIntermediatefilaments Actin
  • 24. Cytoskeleton• Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles Cell membrane • Microfilaments • Actin Endoplasmic reticulum • Cell movement • Support of cell Microtubule • Microtubules Microfilament • Hollow tubes Ribosomes Michondrion • Movement of organelles • Forms cilia, flagella, centrioles
  • 25. Centrioles• Assemble microtubules during cell division• Barrel shaped – pairs• Found In animal cells (used during cell reproduction)
  • 26. Cell Wall • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria • Supports & protects cellshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 27. Chloroplast• Found in plant cells• Contains green chlorophyll• Location where photosynthesis takes place in the cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 28. Vacuoles• Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, a nd waste removal• Contains water solution• Help plants maintain shape- large central vacuolehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  • 29. “Typical” Animal Cellhttp://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
  • 30. “Typical” Plant Cell
  • 31. Venn Diagrams Section 7-2 Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Lysosomes Cell wall Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Animal Cells Plant Cells Cell membrane Ribosomes Cell Wall Lysosomes Nucleus Chloroplasts Centrioles Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vacuoles Mitochondria CytoskeletonGo toSection: