Biology Cell Structure and Function

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Biology Cell Structure and Function

  1. 1. CELLS: STRUCTUREAND FUNCTIONChapter 7.1, 7.2 & 7.4
  2. 2. Discovery of the cell • Robert Hooke – early microscope, thin layer of cork, “cells” • Anton van Leeuwenhoek – observed pond water – small living world • Schleiden – all plants are made of cells • Schwann – all animals are made of cells • Virchow – cells come from existing cellsGo toSection:
  3. 3. The cell theory1. All living things are composed of cells.2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.3. New cells are produced from existing cells.
  4. 4. Characteristics of all cells• Surrounded by cell membrane(plasma)• Contain DNA – genetic material(blueprint)• Contain cytoplasm
  5. 5. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant StemBacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
  6. 6. Prokaryotic• No nucleus (nucleoid region)• Few internal structures - have simple ribosomes• Smaller & simpler than eukaroytic cells• One-celled organisms• Ex. Bacteriahttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
  7. 7. Prokaryotic Cells• Some use flagellum for locomotion • threadlike structures protruding from cell surface Bacterial cell wall Rotary motor Flagellin Sheath
  8. 8. Eukaryotic • Have a membrane bound nucleus, control center that holds DNA (genetic material) • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes (small organs) • Most living organisms – lots of variety • Larger & more complex than prokaryotic cellshttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
  9. 9. Diversity of Life • Unicellular • Levels of Organisms Organization • 1 cell • Cells • Ex. Bacteria, Amoeba • Tissues • Organs • Multicellular • Organ Systems Organisms • 2 or more cells • Ex. Plants & AnimalsGo toSection:
  10. 10. Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells• Plant Cells • Animal Cells • Chloroplasts • Lysosome • Large Central • Centrioles Vacuole • Cell Wall
  11. 11. ORGANELLESStructure & Function
  12. 12. Cell Membrane / Plasma • Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in & out of the cell • Double layer (Lipid Bilayer) • AKA - Plasma Membrane • Selectively permeable boundary between the cell and the environmenthttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html • All cells have this!!
  13. 13. Cell Membrane / Plasma
  14. 14. Nucleus• Directs cell activities• Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane• Contains genetic material - DNA• Nuclear Membrane • Surrounds nucleus • Made of two layers • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  15. 15. Chromosomes/Chromatin • In nucleus • Made of DNA & protein • Contain instructions for traits & characteristics • Contains instructions for making proteinshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  16. 16. Nucleolus• Inside nucleus• Makes ribosomes which then leave the nucleushttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  17. 17. Ribosomes• Each cell contains thousands• Make proteins (site for protein synthesis)• Found on Rough ER & floating throughout the cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  18. 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum • A system of tubes & sacs formed by membranes (an enclosed space) • Moves materials around inside of the cell • Smooth: lacks ribosomes • Lipid synthesis, drug detoxifcation • Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface • Transports proteins to the Golgi http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html body
  19. 19. Golgi Bodies • Protein “packaging plant” • Modifies protein • Attach lipids & carbohydrates to the proteinhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  20. 20. Vesicles move from ER to Golgi
  21. 21. Mitochondria• Produces energy through chemical reactions – cellular respiration• Converts glucose into ATP• Cristae – inner membrane• Matrix – inner membrane spacehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  22. 22. Lysosome • Digestive sac for proteins, fats, & carbohydrates • Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodeshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  23. 23. CytoskeletonMicrotubulesIntermediatefilaments Actin
  24. 24. Cytoskeleton• Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles Cell membrane • Microfilaments • Actin Endoplasmic reticulum • Cell movement • Support of cell Microtubule • Microtubules Microfilament • Hollow tubes Ribosomes Michondrion • Movement of organelles • Forms cilia, flagella, centrioles
  25. 25. Centrioles• Assemble microtubules during cell division• Barrel shaped – pairs• Found In animal cells (used during cell reproduction)
  26. 26. Cell Wall • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria • Supports & protects cellshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  27. 27. Chloroplast• Found in plant cells• Contains green chlorophyll• Location where photosynthesis takes place in the cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  28. 28. Vacuoles• Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, a nd waste removal• Contains water solution• Help plants maintain shape- large central vacuolehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  29. 29. “Typical” Animal Cellhttp://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
  30. 30. “Typical” Plant Cell
  31. 31. Venn Diagrams Section 7-2 Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Lysosomes Cell wall Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Animal Cells Plant Cells Cell membrane Ribosomes Cell Wall Lysosomes Nucleus Chloroplasts Centrioles Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vacuoles Mitochondria CytoskeletonGo toSection:

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