AP Biology Chapter 51 (Class)

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AP Biology Chapter 51 (Class)

  1. 1. Chapter 51 Behavioral Biology
  2. 2. Behavior = what an animal does and how it does it Every behavior results from a combination of genetic (“nature”) and environmental (“nurture”) influences
  3. 3. Reed warbler Cuckoo A species interaction that nicely illustrates many aspects of animal behavior...
  4. 4. Instincts allow reed warblers to build nests and to lay eggs without learning how to do so Even so, nesting behaviors only occur when the appropriate environmental cues are present, and they improve with experience (through learning )
  5. 5. Reed warbler chicks instinctively beg for food
  6. 6. Cuckoos instinctively parasitize reed warblers’ nests
  7. 7. Cuckoo chicks instinctively remove reed warbler eggs
  8. 8. Cuckoo chicks instinctively exploit the innate feeding behavior of the reed warbler adult
  9. 9. Female cuckoo chicks become adults that instinctively parasitize reed warbler nests
  10. 10. The aforementioned, specific behaviors are instinctive adaptations that arose through evolution by natural selection As such, each requires an environmental context and can be modified by experience and learning
  11. 11. Hybrid lovebirds provide another example of the dual nature of behavior (combining genetic and environmental inputs)…
  12. 12. Hybrid lovebirds provide another example of the dual nature of behavior (combining genetic and environmental inputs)…
  13. 13. Hybrid lovebirds provide another example of the dual nature of behavior (combining genetic and environmental inputs)…
  14. 14. Hybrid lovebirds provide another example of the dual nature of behavior (combining genetic and environmental inputs)… Hybrid behavior has elements inherited from both parents, and can be modified by experience and learning
  15. 15. Every behavior has both proximate and ultimate causes Proximate causes are the environmental stimuli that trigger a behavior, as well as the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying that behavior Ethology mainly concerns proximate causes Three ethologists shared the Nobel Prize in 1973: Karl von Frisch Konrad Lorenz Niko Tinbergen
  16. 16. Every behavior has both proximate and ultimate causes Ultimate causes concern the evolutionary significance of a behavior; i.e ., the balance between fitness costs and benefits that selectively favors the behavior Behavioral ecology attempts to understand both proximate and ultimate causes
  17. 17. Proximate cause: daylength changes trigger the release of hormones that stimulate a nest-building response Ultimate cause: The fitness benefits have outweighed the costs during the evolution of nest-building behavior See textbook examples: Fig. 51.4 & 51.5
  18. 18. Innate behavior Innate ( instinctive ) behaviors do not have to be learned; the animal performs them correctly with no prior experience A simple kind of innate behavior is a fixed action pattern in response to an external sensory stimulus (a sign stimulus )
  19. 19. Human babies have an innate dive reflex Water on the face is the sign stimulus Closing the mouth, holding breath, and kicking constitute the fixed action pattern
  20. 20. Male sticklebacks use simple cues to recognize other males A red “belly” is the sign stimulus An aggressive attack is the fixed action pattern Fig. 51.4
  21. 21. Male sticklebacks use simple cues to recognize other males Tinbergen showed that variously shaped models could stimulate the response just as well as real males, supporting the sign-stimulus hypothesis Fig. 51.3 Males responded to red-bellied models Males did not respond to realistic models that lacked red bellies
  22. 22. Tinbergen also showed that gull chicks beg in response to an appropriately colored dot An appropriately colored dot is the sign stimulus Begging is the fixed action pattern
  23. 23. Learning can modify innate responses Resembles Hawk -- Chicks crouch in fear Resembles Goose -- Chicks ignore
  24. 24. With repeated trials, chicks learn that neither shape is dangerous Resembles Hawk -- Chicks crouch in fear Resembles Goose -- Chicks ignore
  25. 25. Learned behavior Learned behaviors are those that have been modified by experience
  26. 26. Learned behavior Habituation – loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information We quickly habituate to “background” noises Habituation prevents an animal from wasting energy on unimportant stimuli
  27. 27. Learned behavior Habituation – loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
  28. 28. Learned behavior Imprinting – learning that is limited to a sensitive period in an animal’s life
  29. 29. Learned behavior Lorenz’s classic studies supported his imprinting hypothesis Fig. 51.5
  30. 30. Learned behavior Adults can also imprint on their offspring, so imprinting is not limited to juvenile stages
  31. 31. Learned behavior We humans have a sensitive period for learning language
  32. 32. Learned behavior Associative learning – the ability to associate one stimulus with another; includes several forms of conditioning Classical conditioning – learning to associate an arbitrary stimulus with a reward or punishment E.g ., Ivan Pavlov’s classic experiments
  33. 33. Learned behavior Operant conditioning (a.k.a. trial-and-error learning ) – learning to associate one of an animal’s own behaviors with a reward or punishment Associative learning – the ability to associate one stimulus with another; includes several forms of conditioning
  34. 34. We quickly learn to associate touching flames with a painful, burning sensation Operant conditioning Learned behavior
  35. 35. Operant conditioning Learned behavior Toads learn to avoid stinging insects through one-trail learning
  36. 36. Operant conditioning – the Skinner box Learned behavior Both positive & negative operant conditioning can produce learned behaviors
  37. 37. Insight is demonstrated when an animal evaluates a new situation and performs the correct, non-instinctive behavior without prior experience Insight Insight is problem-solving without trail-and-error learning, so it relies on previous experience in contexts other than those that characterize the problem at hand
  38. 38. Chimp stacks up boxes to reach suspended food Dog is unable to work out how to reach food Insight
  39. 39. Insight Some adult ravens can solve this problem the first time they are presented with it
  40. 40. Animal Cognition Cognition , in the narrow sense, is synonymous with consciousness or awareness Cognition , in a broader sense, is the ability of an animal to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors The extent of non-human cognitive abilities remains a hot, and important, topic of debate
  41. 41. Behavior serves many functions…
  42. 42. Foraging behavior Foraging behavior comprises all of the means by which an animal searches for, recognizes, and manipulates food items
  43. 43. Play There are two main hypotheses for the ultimate reasons for play:
  44. 44. Play There are two main hypotheses for the ultimate reasons for play: 1. The practice hypothesis postulates that play allows animals to perfect behaviors needed later in life 2. The exercise hypothesis postulates that play helps muscular and cardiovascular systems develop properly
  45. 45. Movement through space Kinesis – change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus Taxis – oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus Sowbugs increase rates of travel in dry areas, which helps keep them in moist areas Sowbugs move away from light, which helps keep them in dark places See Fig. 51.7
  46. 46. Movement through space Dispersal (an animal behaviorist’s definition) – one-time movement away from the natal home range Fig. 51.35
  47. 47. Fig. 51.14 Movement through space Tinbergen showed that wasps use simple landmark features to find their nests In this example, female wasps may simply learn to look for a certain pattern of objects
  48. 48. Movement through space A more complicated means of remembering information about locations involves cognitive maps – internal representations of the spatial relationships of objects in an animal’s home range
  49. 49. Movement through space Migration – relatively long-distance periodic movement ( e.g ., annual)
  50. 50. Movement through space Migration – relatively long-distance periodic movement ( e.g ., annual) Animals use one, or a combination, of the following to find their way: Piloting – moving from one familiar landmark to the next Orientation – an animal detects compass directions and moves in a straight-line path towards its destination Navigation – an animal uses orientation combined with the ability to determine its present location relative to its target location
  51. 51. Fig. 51.16 Movement through space Migration – relatively long-distance periodic movement ( e.g ., annual) Experiments with European starlings suggest that juveniles use orientation, whereas adults make informed movements by combining orientation with cognitive maps (true navigation)
  52. 52. Social behavior Interactions between or among individual animals of the same species Behavioral ecologists attempt to determine the adaptive significance of social behaviors by elucidating their fitness costs and benefits
  53. 53. Monogamy ♀ + ♂ Polygamy Polyandry ♀ + Multiple ♂♂ Polygyny Multiple ♀♀ + ♂ Promiscuity Multiple ♀♀ + Multiple ♂♂ Social behavior Mating systems – the costs and benefits of each potential mating system vary from species to species
  54. 54. Social behavior Courtship – behavior patterns that precede copulation (or gamete release in species with external fertilization)
  55. 55. Social behavior As in all behaviors, the balance of benefits and costs determines the direction of natural, or sexual, selection on courtship behaviors One component of the male tungara frogs’ courtship call is especially attractive to females However, that component also attracts frog-eating bats!
  56. 56. Social behavior Courtship often involves rituals – symbolic activities that help individuals assess the health, vigor, or status of other individuals
  57. 57. Social behavior Rituals are also often employed in intrasexual contests for access to mates If neither of two potential combatants “backs down” during a ritual contest, the contest may escalate to a potentially much more costly fight
  58. 58. Social behavior Rituals are important means of defining and re-defining borders of territories (areas within an animal’s home range that it defends against intruders)
  59. 59. Social behavior Many animals live within social groups, and a dominance hierarchy (“ pecking order ”) defines the dominant vs. subordinate relationships between each pair of individuals Rituals help maintain the status quo dominance hierarchy , and combat is often required for the hierarchy to change
  60. 60. Social organization Solitary Some benefits… Decreased intraspecific competition Decreased risk of disease Decreased risk of detection by predators Some costs… Decreased ability to cooperate in finding food Decreased ability to cooperate against predators Decreased likelihood of finding a mate Solitary vs. Group living
  61. 61. Solitary vs. Group living Group living Some benefits… Increased ability to cooperate in finding food Increased ability to cooperate against predators Increased likelihood of finding a mate Some costs… Increased intraspecific competition Increased risk of disease Increased risk of detection by predators Social organization
  62. 62. Social organization Solitary Group living
  63. 63. Solitary Group living Social organization Eusociality – a special type of group living in which only one or a few members of the group ever reproduce
  64. 64. Solitary Group living Social organization Eusociality – a special type of group living in which only one or a few members of the group ever reproduce Non-reproductive members of eusocial societies sacrifice their own individual fitness to increase the fitness of others in the group, i.e ., they are altruistic
  65. 65. Social behavior Eusociality challenged the paradigm that selection always favors behaviors that maximize individual fitness W. D. Hamilton first suggested the solution to this apparent problem: inclusive fitness Inclusive fitness – the total effect an individual has promoting the representation of its own genes in future generations, both by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables close relatives to produce offspring
  66. 66. Social behavior Hamilton’s Rule Natural selection favors altruism if rB > C r = relatedness B = benefits to recipient C = costs to self Natural selection that favors behaviors that enhance the reproductive success of relatives is called kin selection
  67. 67. Social behavior The coefficient of relatedness ( r ) in Hamilton’s Rule is the same as the probability that two organisms share a particular gene by direct descent Fig. 51.34
  68. 68. Social behavior Female Belding’s ground squirrels give alarm calls that are costly to themselves (exposure to predators), but that confer great benefits to their kin in the colony
  69. 69. Social behavior Communication – an act performed by a sender that serves as a signal and produces a detectable change in the behavior of another individual (the receiver )
  70. 70. Social behavior Communication can be passive A female mandrill’s colorful buttocks signal that she is fertile
  71. 71. Social behavior Communication can be active A male lion’s roar can actively signal his presence
  72. 72. Social behavior Communication can be visual A male Anolis lizard’s dewlap display can signal his quality
  73. 73. Social behavior Communication can be auditory A vervet monkey’s warning call conveys information about the type of predator
  74. 74. Social behavior Communication can be olfactory/chemical Pheromones are the chemicals that animals use to communicate with one another
  75. 75. Social behavior Communication can be tactile Grooming and some aspects of courtship behavior are good examples
  76. 76. Honeybee communication combines many of these modalities… Honey bees use pheromones, visual, auditory, and tactile signals to communicate information about the location of resources K. von Frisch first described the “waggle dance” of honey bees in the 1940s

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