Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
AP Biology Chapter 50 (Class)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

AP Biology Chapter 50 (Class)

4,058

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,058
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Biosphere – all the ecosystems on Earth considered together
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 50 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
    • 2. Ecology The branch of biology that concerns interactions between organisms and their environments Environmentalism Having concern for, or acting in favor of, the environment Ecology is not the same as environmentalism
    • 3. Levels of Biological Organization Biomolecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Within the purview of ecology
    • 4. Ecologists then try to figure out why , by asking mechanistic questions Ecology Two principal pattern-based questions are: Where do organisms live? How common or rare are they? What factors determine the distribution of a species? What factors determine the abundance of a species? E.g .:
    • 5. Ecology Fig. 50.2 Examples of ecological patterns: global distribution and abundance E.g. , red kangaroo
    • 6. Ecology Distribution patterns may be characterized at a variety of spatial scales E.g. , Tetraphis moss
    • 7. Ecology Range sizes Few species are widespread (and common ); most species have small ranges (and are rare )
    • 8. Dominance-diversity curve for a 50-ha forest plot in Panama 1 50 100 150 200 250 300 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 Relative abundance ranks of 300 species of trees N
    • 9. Ecology The environment of an organism includes both abiotic and biotic components Abiotic components = nonliving chemical and physical properties of an individual’s environment ( e.g ., temperature, light, water, nutrient availability, etc .) Both abiotic and biotic factors may influence the distribution and abundance of a given species Biotic components = all of the organisms that are part of an individual’s environment ( e.g. , predators, prey, competitors, mutualists)
    • 10. Fig. 50.8 Ecology Consider this example: abundance of seaweed near Sydney, Australia Abiotic factors dictate that the abundance on dry land is 0% (not shown in the figure)
    • 11. Ecology Herbivore-removal experiments supported the hypothesis that in the intertidal zone sea urchins are the main biotic factors that limit the seaweed’s abundance Fig. 50.8 Consider this example: abundance of seaweed near Sydney, Australia
    • 12. See also Fig. 50.7 Ecology Historical factors may also contribute to the current distribution and abundance of a given species For example, there do not appear to be abiotic or biotic factors that would keep African honey bees out of Brazil, yet there were no African honey bees in Brazil before 1950
    • 13. Ecology In 1950 why were there no African honey bees in Brazil? 1. None had ever naturally dispersed to the Americas from Africa 2. None had ever been introduced to the Americas by humans See also Fig. 50.7
    • 14. Ecology Flowchart of factors limiting geographic distribution Fig. 50.6
    • 15. Ecology Flowchart of factors limiting geographic distribution Fig. 50.6
    • 16. Ecology Flowchart of factors limiting geographic distribution Fig. 50.6
    • 17. Ecology Flowchart of factors limiting geographic distribution Fig. 50.6
    • 18. Fig. 50.5 Biogeography Biogeographic realms or provinces delineate continental-scale regions that are relatively isolated from one another
    • 19. Biogeography Isolation has important consequences for evolution, so biogeographic realms encompass areas with broadly similar evolutionary histories Fig. 50.5
    • 20. E.g ., Proteaceae – a plant family that originated in Gondwana Macroevolution & Phylogeny Continental drift is responsible for many biogeographic distribution patterns Fig. 26.20
    • 21. Macroevolution & Phylogeny Continental drift is responsible for many biogeographic distribution patterns E.g ., Marsupials originated on the supercontinent that became Australia, Antarctica, & S. America Fig. 26.20
    • 22. Fig. 50.18 Global Climate Patterns Regions of the globe can also be characterized by their abiotic conditions ( e.g ., climate )
    • 23. Global Climate Patterns Climate broadly determines the traits of organisms found in a given location Fig. 50.18
    • 24. Global Climate Patterns This climograph identifies major kinds of ecosystems (known as biomes ) in North America Fig. 50.18
    • 25. Global Climate Patterns The tropics are warm; the poles are cold
    • 26. Global Climate Patterns The tropics are generally the wettest, latitudes around 30 ° are generally the driest, latitudes around 60 ° are wet, and polar latitudes are dry
    • 27. Global Climate Patterns Three main physical attributes of the Earth determine global climate patterns See Fig. 50.10
    • 28. Global Climate Patterns 1. Shape of the Earth – causes unequal heating (energy per area) with latitude See Fig. 50.10
    • 29. Global Climate Patterns 1. Shape of the Earth – differential heating and cooling causes rising and sinking air masses: Hadley cells See Fig. 50.10
    • 30. Global Climate Patterns 1. Shape of the Earth – differential heating and cooling causes rising and sinking air masses: Hadley cells See Fig. 50.10
    • 31. Global Climate Patterns 2. Revolution of the Earth on a tilted axis See Fig. 50.10
    • 32. Global Climate Patterns 2. Revolution of the Earth on a tilted axis , which causes Hadley cells to change latitude with the seasons See Fig. 50.10
    • 33. Global Climate Patterns 2. Revolution of the Earth on a tilted axis , which causes Hadley cells to change latitude with the seasons See Fig. 50.10
    • 34. Global Climate Patterns 2. Revolution of the Earth on a tilted axis , which causes Hadley cells to change latitude with the seasons
    • 35. Global Climate Patterns 2. Revolution of the Earth on a tilted axis , which causes Hadley cells to change latitude with the seasons
    • 36. Global Climate Patterns 3. Rotation of the Earth about its axis
    • 37. Global Climate Patterns 3. Rotation of the Earth about its axis , which results in characteristic air and water currents Currents are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere Currents are deflected to the left in the Southern Hemisphere See Fig. 50.10
    • 38. 3. Rotation of the Earth about its axis , which results in characteristic air and water currents Global Climate Patterns See Fig. 50.10 Currents are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere Currents are deflected to the left in the Southern Hemisphere
    • 39. Fig. 50.12 Local Abiotic Conditions Local factors, such as topography, proximity to water bodies, and etc ., superimpose their effects on the climate of a terrestrial region to produce local abiotic conditions ( e.g ., weather )
    • 40. Aquatic Biomes Occupy the largest proportion of Earth’s surface Fig. 50.15
    • 41. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater (< 1% salt) and marine (~ 3% salt) Fig. 50.15
    • 42. Fig. 50.15 Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes & Rivers
    • 43. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes (standing water)
    • 44. Fig. 50.16a Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes (standing water) Photic zone – sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis Lake Zonation
    • 45. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes (standing water) Aphotic zone – insufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis Lake Zonation Fig. 50.16a
    • 46. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes (standing water) Benthic zone – the substrate Lake Zonation Fig. 50.16a
    • 47. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes (standing water) Littoral zone – shallow, well-lit waters close to shore Lake Zonation Fig. 50.16a
    • 48. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Lakes (standing water) Limnetic zone – well-lit surface waters farther from shore Lake Zonation Fig. 50.16a
    • 49. Aquatic Biomes Freshwater : Rivers (flowing water)
    • 50. Aquatic Biomes Wetlands (marshes, swamps, bogs, etc .) Areas covered for at least part of the year by water, and that support aquatic plants
    • 51. Aquatic Biomes Estuaries Fig. 50.15
    • 52. Aquatic Biomes Estuaries ( e.g ., Sabine, Atchafalaya, Mississippi, Pearl) The area where a freshwater river merges with the ocean; often bordered by wetlands (mudflats and salt marshes)
    • 53. Aquatic Biomes Marine biomes account for 75% of Earth’s surface Fig. 50.15
    • 54. Fig. 50.16b Aquatic Biomes Marine zonation: Intertidal zone – where land meets sea; from highest high-tide mark to lowest low-tide mark
    • 55. Aquatic Biomes Marine zonation: Neritic zone – shallow regions over the continental shelves Fig. 50.16b
    • 56. Aquatic Biomes Marine zonation: Oceanic zone – regions beyond the continental shelves Fig. 50.16b
    • 57. Aquatic Biomes Marine zonation: Pelagic zone – open water of any depth Fig. 50.16b
    • 58. Aquatic Biomes Marine zonation: Abyssal zone – the deepest benthos Fig. 50.16b
    • 59. Aquatic Biomes Marine biomes : Intertidal , coral reef , oceanic pelagic , benthic abyssal Fig. 50.15
    • 60. Aquatic Biomes Marine Biome : Intertidal zones Alternately submerged and exposed by twice-daily cycle of tides The vertical zonation of organisms is common
    • 61. Aquatic Biomes Marine Biome : Coral reefs Warm, tropical waters near continents or islands (neritic zone) often support coral reefs (built by the cnidarians that give this biome its name)
    • 62. Aquatic Biomes Marine Biome : Oceanic Pelagic Open ocean waters usually have lower nutrient concentrations than neritic waters, that phytoplankton – at the base of the food chain – nevertheless exploit
    • 63. Aquatic Biomes Marine : Benthic abyssal Abyssal organisms are generally few and far between, except where nutrient concentrations are high, e.g ., whale carcasses (ephemeral) and hydrothermal vents (more permanent)
    • 64. Terrestrial Biomes Fig. 50.19
    • 65. Terrestrial Biomes Warm, wet conditions correspond to high productivity, whereas cold or dry conditions result in low productivity
    • 66. Terrestrial Biomes Tropical forest Fig. 50.19
    • 67. Terrestrial Biomes Tropical forest Tropical forests account for ~7% of the Earth’s terrestrial surface area Even so, >90% of Earth’s species may inhabit tropical forests
    • 68. Terrestrial Biomes Savanna Fig. 50.19
    • 69. Terrestrial Biomes Savanna Both tropical...
    • 70. Terrestrial Biomes Savanna … and temperate Rainfall is insufficient to support closed-canopy forest, and fire is often a characteristic agent of natural disturbance
    • 71. Terrestrial Biomes Desert Fig. 50.19
    • 72. Terrestrial Biomes Desert Arid conditions generally prevent high productivity
    • 73. Terrestrial Biomes Chaparral Fig. 50.19
    • 74. Terrestrial Biomes Chaparral Midlatitudinal coastal areas with mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers Vegetation is dominated by shrubs and small trees
    • 75. Terrestrial Biomes Temperate grassland Fig. 50.19
    • 76. Terrestrial Biomes Temperate grassland The key to the persistence of grasslands is seasonal drought, occasional fires, and grazing by large ungulates
    • 77. Terrestrial Biomes Temperate broadleaf (deciduous) forest Fig. 50.19
    • 78. Terrestrial Biomes Temperate broadleaf (deciduous) forest Temperate broadleaf forests are found at midlatitudes where there is sufficient rainfall to support dense stands of trees Temperate broadleaf trees lose their leaves in winter Most temperate broadleaf forests in North America are secondary (regrowth) forests that returned after logging in the 19 th and 20 th centuries
    • 79. Terrestrial Biomes Coniferous forest Fig. 50.19
    • 80. Terrestrial Biomes Coniferous forest Large expanses of evergreen, coniferous forests are found at high latitudes where winters are cold and long
    • 81. Terrestrial Biomes Tundra (both arctic & alpine ) Fig. 50.19
    • 82. Terrestrial Biomes Tundra (both arctic & alpine ) Permafrost (permanently frozen subsoil), cold temperatures, and high winds exclude most tall plants

    ×