CHAPTER 2<br />The chemical context of life<br />
OUTLINE<br />2.1 Matter: Elements and Compounds<br />2.2 Atoms and their structure<br />2.3 Bonding<br />2.4 Chemical Reac...
IT’s ALL MATTER<br />Section 2.1<br />
Element<br />Substance the cannot be broken down into other substances.<br />28 man-made elements + possibly 6 more<br />
Element<br />
Compounds<br />
Essential Elements<br />Twenty-five essential to life<br />Four make up 96% of ALL living matter<br />N O C H<br />Remaini...
Trace Elements<br />
Up and atom!<br />Section 2.2<br />
Subatomic particles<br />Daltons<br />Atomic Number<br />Atomic Mass<br />
Isotopes<br />Elements with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons.<br />
Isotopes<br />Dating fossils.<br />Tracing atoms.<br />Diagnostics.<br />
Question  1<br />An electron orbital describes:<br />The orbit of an electron around the nucleus<br />The exact distance o...
Question 2<br />Which electron has higher potential energy? <br />An electron in the first electron shell<br />An electron...
Energy levels of Electrons<br />
Electron Distribution<br />Valence electrons/shell<br />Inert<br />
Electron orbitals<br />Three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time.<br />
Bonding<br />Section 2.3<br />
Question 3<br />Which of the following bonds can form between atoms of equal electronegativity?<br />Hydrogen bonds<br />I...
Covalent<br />Sharing of valence electrons<br />
Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds<br />Unequal sharing<br />
Ionic bondS<br />
Ionic bondS<br />
Ionic compounds - Salts<br />
Weak Bonds<br />Hydrogen bonds<br />Van de Waal interactions<br />
Hydrogen bonds<br />
Van der waals interactions<br />Asymmetrically distributed molecules or form “hot spots” of positive or negative charge.<b...
Molecular shape<br />
Chemical Reaction<br />Section 2.5<br />
Making and breaking bonds<br />
Question 4<br />An electron shell describes:<br />The average distance of an electron from the nucleus<br />The potential ...
Question 5<br />Match each of the following bonds with the phrase that describes it. <br />Hydrogen bond<br />Ionic bond<b...
Question 6<br />Which electrons have equivalent potential energy? <br />The lone electron of a hydrogen atom and an electr...
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AP Biology Chapter 2 Presentation (Class)

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AP Biology Chapter 2 Presentation (Class)

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2<br />The chemical context of life<br />
  2. 2. OUTLINE<br />2.1 Matter: Elements and Compounds<br />2.2 Atoms and their structure<br />2.3 Bonding<br />2.4 Chemical Reactions<br />
  3. 3. IT’s ALL MATTER<br />Section 2.1<br />
  4. 4. Element<br />Substance the cannot be broken down into other substances.<br />28 man-made elements + possibly 6 more<br />
  5. 5. Element<br />
  6. 6. Compounds<br />
  7. 7. Essential Elements<br />Twenty-five essential to life<br />Four make up 96% of ALL living matter<br />N O C H<br />Remaining 4% calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur<br />
  8. 8. Trace Elements<br />
  9. 9. Up and atom!<br />Section 2.2<br />
  10. 10. Subatomic particles<br />Daltons<br />Atomic Number<br />Atomic Mass<br />
  11. 11. Isotopes<br />Elements with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons.<br />
  12. 12. Isotopes<br />Dating fossils.<br />Tracing atoms.<br />Diagnostics.<br />
  13. 13. Question 1<br />An electron orbital describes:<br />The orbit of an electron around the nucleus<br />The exact distance of an electron from the nucleus<br />A three-dimensional space where an electron can be found 90% of the time<br />
  14. 14. Question 2<br />Which electron has higher potential energy? <br />An electron in the first electron shell<br />An electron in the third electron shell<br />Both electrons have equal potential energy<br />
  15. 15. Energy levels of Electrons<br />
  16. 16. Electron Distribution<br />Valence electrons/shell<br />Inert<br />
  17. 17. Electron orbitals<br />Three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time.<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Bonding<br />Section 2.3<br />
  23. 23. Question 3<br />Which of the following bonds can form between atoms of equal electronegativity?<br />Hydrogen bonds<br />Ionic bonds<br />Van der Waals interactions<br />
  24. 24. Covalent<br />Sharing of valence electrons<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds<br />Unequal sharing<br />
  27. 27. Ionic bondS<br />
  28. 28. Ionic bondS<br />
  29. 29. Ionic compounds - Salts<br />
  30. 30. Weak Bonds<br />Hydrogen bonds<br />Van de Waal interactions<br />
  31. 31. Hydrogen bonds<br />
  32. 32. Van der waals interactions<br />Asymmetrically distributed molecules or form “hot spots” of positive or negative charge.<br />
  33. 33. Molecular shape<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Chemical Reaction<br />Section 2.5<br />
  37. 37. Making and breaking bonds<br />
  38. 38. Question 4<br />An electron shell describes:<br />The average distance of an electron from the nucleus<br />The potential energy of an electron<br />The orbit of an electron around the nucleus<br />
  39. 39. Question 5<br />Match each of the following bonds with the phrase that describes it. <br />Hydrogen bond<br />Ionic bond<br />Covalent bond<br /> <br />Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms<br />Attraction of a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom to another electronegative atom<br />A strongly electronegative atom strips an electron from a less electronegative atom<br />
  40. 40. Question 6<br />Which electrons have equivalent potential energy? <br />The lone electron of a hydrogen atom and an electron of a helium atom<br />An electron in the 2p orbital of the second electron shell and an electron in the 2s orbital of the second electron shell<br />An electron in the p orbital of the second electron shell and an electron in the p orbital of the third electron shell<br />

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