AP Biology Chapter 2 Presentation (Class)

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  • 1. CHAPTER 2
    The chemical context of life
  • 2. OUTLINE
    2.1 Matter: Elements and Compounds
    2.2 Atoms and their structure
    2.3 Bonding
    2.4 Chemical Reactions
  • 3. IT’s ALL MATTER
    Section 2.1
  • 4. Element
    Substance the cannot be broken down into other substances.
    28 man-made elements + possibly 6 more
  • 5. Element
  • 6. Compounds
  • 7. Essential Elements
    Twenty-five essential to life
    Four make up 96% of ALL living matter
    N O C H
    Remaining 4% calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur
  • 8. Trace Elements
  • 9. Up and atom!
    Section 2.2
  • 10. Subatomic particles
    Atomic Number
    Atomic Mass
  • 11. Isotopes
    Elements with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons.
  • 12. Isotopes
    Dating fossils.
    Tracing atoms.
  • 13. Question 1
    An electron orbital describes:
    The orbit of an electron around the nucleus
    The exact distance of an electron from the nucleus
    A three-dimensional space where an electron can be found 90% of the time
  • 14. Question 2
    Which electron has higher potential energy?
    An electron in the first electron shell
    An electron in the third electron shell
    Both electrons have equal potential energy
  • 15. Energy levels of Electrons
  • 16. Electron Distribution
    Valence electrons/shell
  • 17. Electron orbitals
    Three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. Bonding
    Section 2.3
  • 23. Question 3
    Which of the following bonds can form between atoms of equal electronegativity?
    Hydrogen bonds
    Ionic bonds
    Van der Waals interactions
  • 24. Covalent
    Sharing of valence electrons
  • 25.
  • 26. Polar and nonpolar covalent bonds
    Unequal sharing
  • 27. Ionic bondS
  • 28. Ionic bondS
  • 29. Ionic compounds - Salts
  • 30. Weak Bonds
    Hydrogen bonds
    Van de Waal interactions
  • 31. Hydrogen bonds
  • 32. Van der waals interactions
    Asymmetrically distributed molecules or form “hot spots” of positive or negative charge.
  • 33. Molecular shape
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Chemical Reaction
    Section 2.5
  • 37. Making and breaking bonds
  • 38. Question 4
    An electron shell describes:
    The average distance of an electron from the nucleus
    The potential energy of an electron
    The orbit of an electron around the nucleus
  • 39. Question 5
    Match each of the following bonds with the phrase that describes it.
    Hydrogen bond
    Ionic bond
    Covalent bond
    Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
    Attraction of a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom to another electronegative atom
    A strongly electronegative atom strips an electron from a less electronegative atom
  • 40. Question 6
    Which electrons have equivalent potential energy?
    The lone electron of a hydrogen atom and an electron of a helium atom
    An electron in the 2p orbital of the second electron shell and an electron in the 2s orbital of the second electron shell
    An electron in the p orbital of the second electron shell and an electron in the p orbital of the third electron shell