OVERVIEW AND LEGAL BASES OFSPECIAL EDUCATION AT THESECONDARY LEVELJayson S. HernandezGuidance Counselor ISan Miguel NationalHigh School
Definition Special Education refers to the education ofpersons who are gifted or talented and those whohave physical, mental, social or sensory impairmentand cultural differences that require modification ofthe school curricula, programs and special servicesand physical facilities to enable them to developthemselves to their maximum capacity. Thesepersons include those with cognitive deficits, visuallyimpaired, hearing impaired, with behavior problems,orthopedically handicapped, with special healthproblems, learning disabled, speech impaired ormultiple handicapped.
Scope• Policies and guidelines shall apply to allschools, centers and classes (national orlocal, public or private, formal or non-formal) established under the educationalsystem of the Philippines for the educationof the learners with special needs.
Philosophy• The state shall promote the right of everyindividual to relevant quality educationregardless of sex, age, creed, socio-economic status, physical and mentalcondition, social or ethnic origin, politicaland other affiliation. The state shalltherefore promote and maintain equality ofaccess to education as well as theenjoyment of the benefits of education byall its citizens (BP Blg.232).
Philosophy Every learner with special needs hasa right to an education program thatis suitable to his needs. Specialeducation shares with regulareducation basic responsibilities ofthe educational system to fulfill theright of the child to develop hispotential.
GoalThe ultimate goal of specialeducation shall be theintegration or mainstreaming oflearners with special needs intothe regular school system andeventually into the community
Objectives provide equal opportunities for all learnerswith special needs to acquire theknowledge, skills and values necessary forthem to adapt to a changing world; develop life skills in all learners to ensuretheir active and sustained participation inthe learning process through relevantprograms, projects and enabling policies;
Objectives promote the optimal use of informationtechnology to increase the capability oflearners to pursue their own learning; develop learners who actively participatein the economic growth and developmentof the country; and safeguard the rights of all types of speciallearners
Identification, Screening,Assessment andEvaluation Pre-assessment and post assessmentshall be conducted to every learner withspecial needs. Appropriate assessment instruments shallbe developed or adopted in order toidentify handicapping conditions as earlyas possible. The synthesis of identification anddiagnostic information shall be the basisfor the appropriate educational placementof the learner with special needs.
Responsible Persons Parents/guardians/extended families,neighbors & friends Regular teachers Special Education teachers Guidance counselors School administrators Health workers Social workers Psychologists Speech & physical therapists Law enforcement officers
Physical Height & weight Physical development Gross & fine motor coordination Hearing status Visual status Oral hygiene & dental development Health condition
Administration andOrganization of Classes Learners with special needs shall enjoyequality of access to formal and non-formal education.• Promotion of learners except forgifted/talented/fast learners and for thosewith cognitive deficit/mental retardationand multiple handicapped with specialneeds shall follow the promotion policy forthe regular year level.
For maximum efficiency, class sizes atany given timeExceptionality One Year LevelGifted/Fast Learner 30-35Mentally Retarded 8-15Visually Impaired 5-10 (self-contained)Hearing Impaired 7-12 (mainstreaming)Behavior Problems 15-20OrthopedicallyHandicapped10-15Multiple Handicapped 5-8Speech Defective 10-15Learning Disabled 7-10
Curriculum Content,Instructional Strategies &Materials The curriculum of the secondary level for SpecialEducation shall be based on the curriculumprescribed for the regular schools by theDepartment of Education with scheme modificationfor particular case/type of exceptionalities.Regular Curriculum – the curriculum prescribed forregular students.Modified Curriculum – the curriculum prescribedfor regular students with certain adaptations tomeet the needs of special students.Special Curriculum – the curriculum for learnerswith special needs aimed primarily at developingspecial adaptive skills to maximize theirpotentials.
Curriculum Content,Instructional Strategies &Materials Curriculum plans shall be research- based,tested successfully on a pilot basis beforetheir implementation on a bigger scale andevaluated periodically. These plans shallbe accompanied by a variety ofinstructional materials. The modified curriculum for the visuallyimpaired shall include sensory training,special instruction in Braille music, typing,computer and sports, mathematics, Braillereading and writing, orientation andmobility.
Curriculum Content,Instructional Strategies &Materials Modified curriculum for learners withbehavior problems shall include specialactivities and instructional techniques forthe normalization of behavior withemphasis on moral, civic and spiritualvalues as well as training in livelihood,and technical and academic skills toprepare them for the world of work. Low cost and indigenous instructionalmaterials shall be developed for the use oflearners with special needs
Organization Patterns Learners with special needs shall be provided witha variety of educational programs and services.Integration/MainstreamingResource Room PlanItinerant Teacher PlanCooperative Class Plan (Part-Time Special Class Plan)Special Education CenterResidential SchoolHospital InstructionHomebound InstructionCommunity-Based Delivery System
Organization Patterns• Special Guidance Programs for the learners withspecial needs shall be established andmaintained. Individual conferences,community-sponsored programs,scholarship societies, career andvocational counseling, peer coaching,family support program, parent educationprogram, reading and guiding program,sign language training program, readingand guiding program for the visuallyimpaired shall be made available in theschool.
Personnel Recruitment,Welfare and Development For the effective implementation of the specialeducation program, the education, welfare andtraining of personnel shall be given high priority.Education and work experience – BSE major in SPED; BSEplus 18 units in SPED in the graduate level; BSE plus 15units in SPED with 2 years of VS and willing to be trainedwithin a year; BSE plus 9 units in SPED with 6 years of VSand to train within a year; BSE plus 2 years of VS as aSPED teacher.
Personnel Recruitment,Welfare and Development In the absence of qualified teachers, equivalentexperience or training in handling learners withspecial needs and demonstrated commitment shallbe considered for appointment. The hiring rate of SPED teachers shall be at least 3grades higher than that of regular teachers. SPED personnel shall be given incentives such asthe following:MT positions when they meet requirementsAwards for consistent outstanding performance for the last 3 yearsPriority in recommendations related scholarships and fellowshipsAttendance to international conferences or observations of SPEDprograms
Administration andSupervision Teacher responsibilitiesRegular Classroom TeacherView the learner as a total personAssess the behavioral signs of disorders/difficultiesProvide varied activities for a wide range of individualdifferencesProvide a setting for, and expect achievement of the learnerProvide strategies that help the learner develop conceptsmeaningful to himself and provide first-hand experiencesObtain assistance in the form of constructive consultationand specialized materials and equipmentConfer regularly with the SPED teacher
Administration andSupervisionSPED Classroom TeacherTeach the basic academic subjects with minimumintegration with the non-handicapped in PE forsocialization purposesInterpret the learners’ needs and abilities to theregular classroom teacher and other schoolpersonnelWork closely with all personnel in the school inplanning a program which will be beneficial tothe special learners
Administration andSupervisionSPED CoordinatorMaintain all school records for SPED learnersAssist in the recruitment of prospective learners and SPEDteachersAssist/initiate/organize training programs for SPEDInnovate programs and projects for both learners andteachersMonitor/evaluate classroom instruction and related activitiesin SPEDIntegrate and implement new and existing policies andguidelines of the SPED ProgramDemonstrate leadership in resourcing appropriateeducational facilities/instructional aids
Legal Bases DepED Order No. 6, s. 2006 Policies and Guidelinesfor Special Education at the Secondary Level Batas Pambansa Blg. 344 An Act to enhance themobility of disabled persons by requiring certainbuildings, institutions, establishments and publicutilities to install facilities and other devices PD 603 The child and youth welfare code asamended RA 9155 Governance of Basic Education Act of2001 RA 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons DECS Order No. 26, s. 1997 Institutionalization ofSPED Programs in all schools
Legal Bases DECS Order no. 14, s. 1993 Regional SpecialEducation Council DepED Order no. 37, s. 2003 Revised implementingguidelines of the 2002 SEC Curriculum effectiveschool year 2003-2004 DepED Order No. 33, s. 2004 ImplementingGuidelines on the performance-based gradingsystem for SY 2004-2005 DepED Order No. 35, s. 2005 Policy guidelines inthe implementation of the Secondary EducationProgram of the 2002 BEC for SY 2005-2006 DepEd Order No. 6, s. 2005 Selection of honorpupils/students in public elementary and secondaryschools
Legal Bases DECS Order No. 5, s. 1998 Reclassification ofregular teacher and principal items to SPEDteacher and special school principal items DepED Order No. 63, s. 2008 Guidelines in theutilization of the PhP 500 000 allocation to the pilotschools of the SPS and SPA and schools offeringSPED