4 Genetics: Sources of Genetic Variation

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  • 4 Genetics: Sources of Genetic Variation

    1. 1. How is variation produced in a population? Jennifer Oh (SL)
    2. 2. What is genetic variation?
    3. 3. What is genetic variation?Variation in alleles ofgenes
    4. 4. What is genetic variation?Variation in alleles ofgenesOccurs within andamong populations
    5. 5. What is genetic variation?Variation in alleles ofgenesOccurs within andamong populationsThe “raw material” ofnatural selection
    6. 6. Sources of Genetic Variation
    7. 7. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations
    8. 8. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations
    9. 9. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations
    10. 10. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction
    11. 11. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction Recombination
    12. 12. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction Recombination Mate selection
    13. 13. Assessment StatementsThese are the assessment statements thatdeal with this topic:
    14. 14. Assessment StatementsThese are the assessment statements thatdeal with this topic: 4.1.2 Define gene, allele, and genome 4.1.3 Define gene mutation State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus 4.2.1 to form haploid nuclei Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing of 4.2.3 homologous chromosomes and crossing over, followed by t wo divisions, which results in four haploid cells Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, 4.3.1 codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test cross
    15. 15. Basic Vocabulary
    16. 16. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic.
    17. 17. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2
    18. 18. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome
    19. 19. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome From assessment statement 4.3.1
    20. 20. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome From assessment statement 4.3.1 Genotype, phenotype
    21. 21. 4.1.2 Vocab
    22. 22. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristic
    23. 23. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristic
    24. 24. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristic
    25. 25. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the gene
    26. 26. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the gene
    27. 27. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the gene
    28. 28. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the geneGenome - the whole genetic information ofan organism
    29. 29. 4.3.1 Vocab
    30. 30. 4.3.1 VocabGenotype - the alleles of an organism;determines the genetic potential
    31. 31. 4.3.1 VocabGenotype - the alleles of an organism;determines the genetic potentialPhenotype - the characteristics of anorganism
    32. 32. Mutation
    33. 33. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic information
    34. 34. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial
    35. 35. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generations
    36. 36. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3)
    37. 37. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an allele
    38. 38. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an alleleChromosome mutation
    39. 39. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an alleleChromosome mutation Pieces of chromosomes may be rearranged during meiosis
    40. 40. Mutation
    41. 41. Sexual Reproduction
    42. 42. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinations
    43. 43. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination
    44. 44. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue
    45. 45. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinations
    46. 46. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinationsMate Selection
    47. 47. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinationsMate Selection Different combinations of genes will come together in the offspring depending on which t wo parents mate together
    48. 48. Meiosis
    49. 49. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)
    50. 50. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)For this topic, the important part is: crossing over
    51. 51. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)For this topic, the important part is: crossing overAt Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes pair up(synapsis), and segments of the chromosome can beexchanged
    52. 52. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)For this topic, the important part is: crossing overAt Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes pair up(synapsis), and segments of the chromosome can beexchangedImportant source of variation for the gene pool of apopulation
    53. 53. Watch this video!GREAT video lesson about genetic variation:http://www.khanacademy.org/video/variation-in-a-species?playlist=Biology
    54. 54. i-Biology Link4.1 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.14.2 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.24.3 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.3
    55. 55. More exercisesFor more exercises on this topic, look at thesepages from the Biozone workbook. Mutations: p. 197 - 8 Meiosis: p. 185 - 8 Genetic Variation: p. 181 - 2
    56. 56. The End!

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