4 Genetics: Sources of Genetic Variation
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Transcript

  • 1. How is variation produced in a population? Jennifer Oh (SL)
  • 2. What is genetic variation?
  • 3. What is genetic variation?Variation in alleles ofgenes
  • 4. What is genetic variation?Variation in alleles ofgenesOccurs within andamong populations
  • 5. What is genetic variation?Variation in alleles ofgenesOccurs within andamong populationsThe “raw material” ofnatural selection
  • 6. Sources of Genetic Variation
  • 7. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations
  • 8. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations
  • 9. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations
  • 10. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction
  • 11. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction Recombination
  • 12. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction Recombination Mate selection
  • 13. Assessment StatementsThese are the assessment statements thatdeal with this topic:
  • 14. Assessment StatementsThese are the assessment statements thatdeal with this topic: 4.1.2 Define gene, allele, and genome 4.1.3 Define gene mutation State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus 4.2.1 to form haploid nuclei Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing of 4.2.3 homologous chromosomes and crossing over, followed by t wo divisions, which results in four haploid cells Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, 4.3.1 codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test cross
  • 15. Basic Vocabulary
  • 16. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic.
  • 17. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2
  • 18. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome
  • 19. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome From assessment statement 4.3.1
  • 20. Basic VocabularyBefore diving into the details of geneticvariation, here are some basic terms that youneed to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome From assessment statement 4.3.1 Genotype, phenotype
  • 21. 4.1.2 Vocab
  • 22. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristic
  • 23. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristic
  • 24. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristic
  • 25. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the gene
  • 26. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the gene
  • 27. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the gene
  • 28. 4.1.2 VocabGene - a heritable factor that controls aspecific characteristicAllele - one specific form of a gene, differingfrom other alleles by one or a few bases onlyand occupying the same gene locus as otheralleles of the geneGenome - the whole genetic information ofan organism
  • 29. 4.3.1 Vocab
  • 30. 4.3.1 VocabGenotype - the alleles of an organism;determines the genetic potential
  • 31. 4.3.1 VocabGenotype - the alleles of an organism;determines the genetic potentialPhenotype - the characteristics of anorganism
  • 32. Mutation
  • 33. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic information
  • 34. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial
  • 35. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generations
  • 36. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3)
  • 37. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an allele
  • 38. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an alleleChromosome mutation
  • 39. MutationMutations are the source of all new genetic informationNot always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialCan be accumulated over many generationsGene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an alleleChromosome mutation Pieces of chromosomes may be rearranged during meiosis
  • 40. Mutation
  • 41. Sexual Reproduction
  • 42. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinations
  • 43. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination
  • 44. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue
  • 45. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinations
  • 46. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinationsMate Selection
  • 47. Sexual ReproductionProvides rearrangement and shuffling of the geneticmaterial into new combinationsCrossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinationsMate Selection Different combinations of genes will come together in the offspring depending on which t wo parents mate together
  • 48. Meiosis
  • 49. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)
  • 50. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)For this topic, the important part is: crossing over
  • 51. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)For this topic, the important part is: crossing overAt Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes pair up(synapsis), and segments of the chromosome can beexchanged
  • 52. MeiosisMeiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to formhaploid nuclei (4.2.1)For this topic, the important part is: crossing overAt Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes pair up(synapsis), and segments of the chromosome can beexchangedImportant source of variation for the gene pool of apopulation
  • 53. Watch this video!GREAT video lesson about genetic variation:http://www.khanacademy.org/video/variation-in-a-species?playlist=Biology
  • 54. i-Biology Link4.1 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.14.2 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.24.3 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.3
  • 55. More exercisesFor more exercises on this topic, look at thesepages from the Biozone workbook. Mutations: p. 197 - 8 Meiosis: p. 185 - 8 Genetic Variation: p. 181 - 2
  • 56. The End!