Violence current concepts and future directions<br />Dr.JP.Rajendran, 2008-09<br />
Objectives <br />Theoretical underpinnings of violence<br />The links between the links   violence – mental illness<br />M...
Current violent trends graph<br />
Violence – definition<br />Dominance / assertive – aggression – violence<br />Attitude / intention / legal implications<br...
The types of violence …              ( Home office counting rules)<br />Violence against the person<br />Criminal damage<b...
Why is this topic important?<br />Violent persons develop mental illness – more in prison settings<br />Mentally ill can b...
Violence as a concept<br />Cannot be measured <br />Difficult to define <br />Variety of behaviours<br />Unpredictable<br ...
Other problem issues<br />22 theories<br />Famous experiment  - 1999 Ellis<br />Only 17% criminologists agree on same mode...
The Science of violence<br />1746 – 1916<br />Cesare beccaria   - founding father<br />propensity to violence / crime<br /...
Britain<br />Jeremy Bentham<br />Philosopher  18th century <br />‘panoptican’ – model prison<br />The role of visibility a...
Medical model <br />Cesare lombroso – physician<br />18th century <br />Skull characters<br />78% abnormal in male offende...
Mathematical models<br />Adolph quetelet – positivism <br />Statistician – 18th century<br />
Social models of violence<br />Emilie durkheim<br />Famous suicidal theories<br />Nature of economic conditions and not of...
20th century biological theories<br />Adopted parents Vs biologial parents – experiements<br />Medwick/Gabriel/Hutchinson<...
20th century social theories<br />Bongers’s<br />Egoistic tendency to gain social position<br />Merton’s anomie  or  ‘disl...
Other social theories<br />Murray’s <br />Right realism – blames capitalism<br />Young’s <br />Left realism – blames relat...
Katz’s seduction  - compulsion theory<br />What does it mean to feel, smell, taste, sound, taste or look like to commit a ...
Jean genet 1910 – 1986<br />Sentenced to life in 1949, rescued by jean paul Sartre/ cocteau<br />
Pavlovian conditioning<br />Violent behaviours are best seen as unconditioned stimuli. We are naturally programmed to feel...
Evidence for conditioning<br />Introverts easily conditioned social conformity seen<br />Extraverts and psychoticism diff...
Conditioning and re -offending<br />Once violent activity has occurred  - de-sensitised to the same issue– easy to repeat ...
Self control theory<br />Hirschi /grottesdon<br />Stable trait – resistant to extinction<br />Usually a violent person ign...
Multiple  paradigm  field<br />Too many facts and ideas<br />Scientific coherence in understanding<br />General advice:<br...
DISPOSITIONAL VIOLENCE<br />I HAVE<br />PMS<br />AND <br />A <br />HANDGUN.<br />ANY QUESTIONS ?<br />
Dispositional THEORIES<br />Violence in A & E – pain, low frustration tolerance<br />Violence in medium secure / prisons –...
Abolitionist theory<br />Penal reform theories<br />Social movement<br />A good theoretical perspective<br />
Current preventive trends<br />
And controversies !<br />
Facts and trivia<br />Schizophrenia and alcohol<br />Depression <br />Borderline PD / Anti social PD<br />Drug related pro...
Gender and violence<br />
Facts  contd..<br />Testosterone<br />Extra – ‘y’ chromosome<br />Dysmorphic features<br />Neuro transmitter theory<br />G...
Victims characteristics<br />
National targets<br />National audit on violence<br />Ongoing training <br />Domestic violence targets<br />Violence again...
Thank you…..<br />
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Current Concepts in Violence

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Presentation made by JP Rajendran, used in teaching since 2007.. last updated Aug 2009

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Current Concepts in Violence

  1. 1. Violence current concepts and future directions<br />Dr.JP.Rajendran, 2008-09<br />
  2. 2. Objectives <br />Theoretical underpinnings of violence<br />The links between the links violence – mental illness<br />Management of violence<br />
  3. 3. Current violent trends graph<br />
  4. 4. Violence – definition<br />Dominance / assertive – aggression – violence<br />Attitude / intention / legal implications<br />Violence –excessive force used with an intention to cause harm to animals, humans or property…often linked to crime<br />
  5. 5. The types of violence … ( Home office counting rules)<br />Violence against the person<br />Criminal damage<br />Sexual offences<br />Robbery<br />Aggravated burglary<br />Different category burglary, theft, fraud and forgery, drug related offences, Vehicle and other theft categories.<br />
  6. 6. Why is this topic important?<br />Violent persons develop mental illness – more in prison settings<br />Mentally ill can become violent and/or illness can worsen in prison<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Violence as a concept<br />Cannot be measured <br />Difficult to define <br />Variety of behaviours<br />Unpredictable<br />Complex interplay<br />social/situational factors<br />
  9. 9. Other problem issues<br />22 theories<br />Famous experiment - 1999 Ellis<br />Only 17% criminologists agree on same model of explanation<br />
  10. 10. The Science of violence<br />1746 – 1916<br />Cesare beccaria - founding father<br />propensity to violence / crime<br />Italy and france<br />Later Developments by<br />Philosopher, mathematician, physician and sociologist<br />
  11. 11. Britain<br />Jeremy Bentham<br />Philosopher 18th century <br />‘panoptican’ – model prison<br />The role of visibility and surveillance <br />Prisoners should never know they are observed<br />English utilitarianism <br />
  12. 12. Medical model <br />Cesare lombroso – physician<br />18th century <br />Skull characters<br />78% abnormal in male offenders<br />27% abnormal in female offenders<br />51% abnormal in prostitutes<br />
  13. 13. Mathematical models<br />Adolph quetelet – positivism <br />Statistician – 18th century<br />
  14. 14. Social models of violence<br />Emilie durkheim<br />Famous suicidal theories<br />Nature of economic conditions and not of individual abnormalities<br />Successor willem bonger<br />
  15. 15. 20th century biological theories<br />Adopted parents Vs biologial parents – experiements<br />Medwick/Gabriel/Hutchinson<br />Eysencks theories<br />Moderately built evidence in favour of genes and environmental interactions<br />
  16. 16. 20th century social theories<br />Bongers’s<br />Egoistic tendency to gain social position<br />Merton’s anomie or ‘dislocation’<br />Shame as a main factor leading to violence<br />Respect the Hoodies campaign<br />A famous Movie Dialogue <br />
  17. 17. Other social theories<br />Murray’s <br />Right realism – blames capitalism<br />Young’s <br />Left realism – blames relative deprivation<br />Theory of self control – hirschis<br />Social bond with others prevents all of us doing harm and losing privileges<br />Lack of intimate relationships, freedom from conventional ties explored<br />
  18. 18. Katz’s seduction - compulsion theory<br />What does it mean to feel, smell, taste, sound, taste or look like to commit a violent act<br />The original stories of Piero Riviera in a French village – analysed by Foucault<br />The infamous Jean Genet, accomplished French novelist , who chose a life of criminal.<br />A recent example from ward 1<br />
  19. 19. Jean genet 1910 – 1986<br />Sentenced to life in 1949, rescued by jean paul Sartre/ cocteau<br />
  20. 20. Pavlovian conditioning<br />Violent behaviours are best seen as unconditioned stimuli. We are naturally programmed to feel rewarded on contemplation and execution<br />Parents. Teachers, peers start delivering punishments throughout our life time for such behaviours<br />We are conditioned not even to think about them<br />
  21. 21. Evidence for conditioning<br />Introverts easily conditioned social conformity seen<br />Extraverts and psychoticism difficult to condition more violence seen<br />Day center programs<br />
  22. 22. Conditioning and re -offending<br />Once violent activity has occurred - de-sensitised to the same issue– easy to repeat them again.<br />Re-sensitization used in treatment settings<br />
  23. 23. Self control theory<br />Hirschi /grottesdon<br />Stable trait – resistant to extinction<br />Usually a violent person ignores the long term complication of his actions<br />Some of us can't go wrong – cannot override the long term complications – anxiety signal<br />
  24. 24. Multiple paradigm field<br />Too many facts and ideas<br />Scientific coherence in understanding<br />General advice:<br />Touch it standard – Pisa tower<br />Near and far standard – micro/macro systems<br />The few to many standard –Occam's razor<br />Exactly how standards – demo<br />
  25. 25. DISPOSITIONAL VIOLENCE<br />I HAVE<br />PMS<br />AND <br />A <br />HANDGUN.<br />ANY QUESTIONS ?<br />
  26. 26. Dispositional THEORIES<br />Violence in A & E – pain, low frustration tolerance<br />Violence in medium secure / prisons – lack of mobility, section 17 leave, M.I, withdrawal<br />POST-Partum/ pre-menstrual<br />Homelessness<br />
  27. 27. Abolitionist theory<br />Penal reform theories<br />Social movement<br />A good theoretical perspective<br />
  28. 28. Current preventive trends<br />
  29. 29. And controversies !<br />
  30. 30. Facts and trivia<br />Schizophrenia and alcohol<br />Depression <br />Borderline PD / Anti social PD<br />Drug related problems<br />Past history<br />Male sex<br />Growing up witnessing physical violence<br />Playing Video games<br />
  31. 31. Gender and violence<br />
  32. 32. Facts contd..<br />Testosterone<br />Extra – ‘y’ chromosome<br />Dysmorphic features<br />Neuro transmitter theory<br />Growing up in verbally aggressive family<br />
  33. 33. Victims characteristics<br />
  34. 34. National targets<br />National audit on violence<br />Ongoing training <br />Domestic violence targets<br />Violence against NHS staff<br />Guidelines and review documents<br />
  35. 35. Thank you…..<br />

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