Jay patel Open Access TIPPA Midwest presentation june 2013
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Jay patel Open Access TIPPA Midwest presentation june 2013

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Hello, this is the presentation I was invited to give about Open Access at TIPPA Midwest on June 13, 2013. The focus of the presentation is how open access is changing scholarly publishing.

Hello, this is the presentation I was invited to give about Open Access at TIPPA Midwest on June 13, 2013. The focus of the presentation is how open access is changing scholarly publishing.

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  • 1. From closed to Open AccessJay PatelPublications Development DirectorDove Medical PressJune 13, 2013How Open Access is changing theway we publish
  • 2. DISCLOSUREJay Patel is a full-time employee of Dove MedicalPress.The opinions expressed here are my own andnot necessarily those of Dove Medical Press.
  • 3. “Information wants to be free because it hasbecome so cheap to distribute, copy, andrecombine - too cheap to meter. It wants to beexpensive because it can be immeasurably valuableto the recipient. That tension will not go away.”Stuart Brand - The Media Lab: Inventing the Futureat MIT - 1987
  • 4. A brief history• January 1665 – Denis de Sallo’s Journal des Sçavans (world’s firstjournal)• March 1665 – Henry Oldenberg’s Philosophical Transactions(world’s first research journal) licensed by Royal Society of London -first recorded instance of ‘peer review’ by Council of the RoyalSociety• 1731 - Medical Essays and Observations, the first fully peer-reviewed journal, is launched by the Royal Society of Edinburgh• 1848 - The American Association for the Advancement of Science isfounded. AAAS publishes the journal Science and is the largestgeneral scientific society in the world• 1869 - Nature publishes its first issue• 1880 - Science publishes its first issue• 1947 - Elsevier, the longtime publishing giant, launches its firstinternational journal, Biochimica et Biophysica ActaSource: Ben Mudrak Scholarly Publishing: A Brief History Jan 26, 2013
  • 5. A brief history• 1990 - Postmodern Culture becomes the first online-only journal with no printedversion available• 1991 - arXiv, the science pre-print server, is launched• 2000 - BioMed Central published its first free online article• 2002. Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) launched by the Open Society Institute• 2002. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute committed itself to cover the publicationcosts for fee-based open-access journals• 2003 - The Public Library of Science (PLOS) is founded• 2004 – Dove Medical Press is founded• 2006 - PLOS ONE launched. As of December 2011, PLOS ONE was publishing 70 articlesper day!• 2010 - The altmetrics manifesto, describing potential new ways to gauge the impact ofresearch beyond citations and impact factors, is written• 2012 - Several innovative new journals, including F1000 Research, PeerJ, and eLife, arelaunched. These new journals are experimenting with new forms of peer review, newbusiness models, and new funding sourcesSource: Ben Mudrak Scholarly Publishing: A Brief History Jan 26, 2013Peter Suber Timeline of the Open Access Movement Feb 9, 2009
  • 6. Current state of scholarly publishing• 25,000 scholarly journals• 1.5 million articles/yr• 3% annual growth• 1 million unique authors/yr• 10-15 million readers at morethan 10,000 institutions• > 1.5 billion downloads(2007/8)• $8 billion - 2008 revenueenglish STM journal publishingSource: Mabe MA (2009):Scholarly Publishing. EuropeanReview 17(1): 3-22
  • 7. Conventional publication modelResearcher hasan idea, getfunding, conductresearch, gets aresult and writesa papersSubmits paper toa journal andpublisherevaluates andassigns peer-reviewersPaper is peer-reviewedEditor reviewspeer-reviewercomments andeither accepts,rejects or asksfor revisionsIf acceptedjournal publishespaper on theweb and later inprintIf rejected submit toanother journalPublisher retains copyright, sellssubscriptions or access, sells reprints,charges for permissions
  • 8. Benefits of the conventional model• A proven model with 350 plus years of history• Reliable scholarship• Written by experts• Stringent peer-review helps weed out junk• Assessment has already been done• People with high level filtering expertise, andno search engine can match that• Significant advances seen more easily
  • 9. So where did OA come from?Or the cons of the conventional model• There are five strands to the OA argument:– the library-funding crisis– that lack of access impedes research– the right to access publicly funded research– the needs of the developing world (HINARI)– the profits of scholarly societies and publishersSource: Robinson A (2006):Open access: the view of a commercial publisher. Journal ofThrombosis and Haemostasis 4(7): 1454-1460
  • 10. What is Open Access?• Accuracy not significance• Digital• Online• Immediate• Greater transparency• Free to read• Free of most copyright andlicensing restrictions• Compatible with peer review,prestige, quality, career-advancement and indexing• Not free to produceSource: Peter Suber Open Access Overview
  • 11. Three flavors of OA• Gold Open Access– pay-to-publish (66% of OAjournals do not charge)• Green Open Access– self-archiving (60% of timeresearchers can archive rightaway, no embargo)• Hybrid Open Access– some of the articles are openaccess
  • 12. Source: Richard Van Noorden Open access: The truecost of science publishing – Naturehttp://www.nature.com/news/open-access-the-true-cost-of-science-publishing-1.12676
  • 13. OA by the numbers• OA journals (Gold OA)– 8,817. March 27, 2013. The number of peer-reviewed OA journalslisted in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)– 1,461 (or 16.6%). March 27, 2013. The number of CC-BY licensedjournals in the DOAJ– 5,858 (or 66.4%). March 27, 2013. The number of no-fee journals inthe DOAJ– 3.4. February 5, 2013. Average number of new journals added eachday in 2012 to the DOAJ– 181. June 6, 2013. Number of publishers offering hybrid OA optionsaccording to SHERPASource: Peter Suber Open Access Directory - http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/OA_by_the_numbers
  • 14. OA by the numbers• OA repositories (Green OA)– 2,256. February 10, 2013. Number of OA, OAI-compliant repositories listed byOpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories).– 1,100 / 25,000,000 records. February 10, 2013. Numbers of OA, OAI-compliantcontributors / records harvested (indexed and searched) by OAIster.– 2,600,000. February 10, 2013. Number of free full-text articles on deposit atPubMed Central.• 1217. February 10, 2013. Number of journals depositing all articles inPubMed Central.• 247. February 10, 2013. Number of journals depositing NIH-fundedarticles in PubMed Central.– 10. March 15, 2005. Average number of minutes it takes to self-archive onearticle, according to Les Carr and Stevan Harnad, Keystroke Economy: A Studyof the Time and Effort Involved in Self-Archiving.Source: Peter Suber Open Access Directory - http://oad.simmons.edu/oadwiki/OA_by_the_numbers
  • 15. OA copyright licenses• AttributionCC BY• Attribution-ShareAlikeCC BY-SA• Attribution-NoDerivsCC BY-ND• Attribution-NonCommercialCC BY-NC• Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlikeCC BY-NC-SA• Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivsCC BY-NC-NDSOURCE: OPEN ACCESS SCHOLARLY PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATIONSource: John Wilbanks Licence restrictions: A fools errand - Nature -http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v495/n7442/full/495440a.html
  • 16. Source: Richard Van Noorden Open access: The true cost of science publishing – Naturehttp://www.nature.com/news/open-access-the-true-cost-of-science-publishing-1.12676
  • 17. Publishers costs of OA• Hindawi – published 22,000 papers in 2012 at acost of $290/article• Ubiquity Press – average costs ar $300/article• PeerJ – costs are in “low hundreds of dollars” perarticle• Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences– need to charge $3,700/article to cover costs ifOA• Nature – estimates internal costs at $30K - $40Kper articleSource: Richard Van Noorden Open access: The true cost of science publishing – Naturehttp://www.nature.com/news/open-access-the-true-cost-of-science-publishing-1.12676
  • 18. How is OA changing the way we publish• Governments, funders and academic institutions are making fundsavailable for OA through grants, OA funds or buying membershipsthrough publishers• These same groups mandate that articles be made OA immediatelyor after an embargo period (typically 12 months)– 172 institutional mandates, 37 sub-institutional mandates and 81 funder mandates(ROARMAP - http://roarmap.eprints.org/)– NIH, Institute of Education Sciences, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, RCUK,European Research Council, Inserm, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes MedicalInstitute, Max Planck Society, MIT, Harvard, University of California , Columbia,NYU, Stanford• A growing number of conventional publishers are offering OAoptions (June 6, 2013 - 181 according to SHERPA RoMEO -http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/PaidOA.html)
  • 19. How is OA changing the way we publish• OA has led to the decoupling of the journal and the article– Impact factor is loosing its impact– Article level metrics– Greater prestige for the article• Authors are retaining copyright and greater control over their ownresearch• Reduced article peer-review, processing and publication timelines• Increased use of enhanced media, social media, sharing and re-use• Feedback is immediate and discussion is open to all• Allows for greater experimentation– Pre-print servers (arXiv)– Post publication peer review (F1000 Research)– Open peer review (BMJ Open)– Publish referee reports (EMBO, BMC)
  • 20. Limitations of OA• Prestige - base evaluation and the value ofresearcher and research on citation indices andthe Journal Impact Factor• Quality control – not all OA publishers are equal• APCs (Article Processing Charges) – not allresearchers can finance their publications, needfor increased funding• Fewer options among journals with status/highimpact factor
  • 21. What does the future hold?• Greater funding and support for OA (gold andgreen)• Reduction or an all out elimination of embargos• Fluid papers not static PDFs– “Paper of the future” embedded with media, raw dataand analysis tools1– Article of the futurehttp://www.articleofthefuture.com/• eBay for scientific research, highest bidder getsthe paperSource: 1. Michael Eisen The Past, Present and Future of Scholarly Publishing, March 28, 2013 -http://www.michaeleisen.org/blog/?p=1346