PROJECT REPORT ON
DEPARTMENT OF DIPLOMA IN ELECTRICAL
SHRI K.J. POLYTECHNIC
Submitted By: -
SHRI K. J. POLYTECHNIC
(Affiliated to Gujarat technological University)
Department of Diploma in Electrical
This is certify that “………………………………………………………………………….” Of
diploma in electrical has completed their project “UPS-CUM-EPS” Satisfactorily during
the Year 2013-14
Date:Signature of guide
Head of Department
This project report shall be incomplete if we do not convey our heartfelt
gratitude to those people from whom We have got considerable support and encouragement
during this project. Many people have helped, provided direction, technical information and
advice at all stages of our project and it’s our pleasure to say vote of thanks to all of them.
However, with the help of our project guide “BINA PANDYA” it seems much more interesting
to write this thesis than we expected.
Also we are very much thankful for our college SHRI K. J. POLYTECHNIC, which
provide us a good study environment & available access to get literature. Besides our friends
showed their kindly help & support in our thesis. Because of them, living in Bharuch & studying
in K.J.Polytechnic (Bharuch) is a nice time.
The project is designed The UPS helps to "smooth out" voltage, i.e. eliminate peaks that
are over a certain level. When there is a power outage, the energy stored in the emergency
battery keeps the power supply flowing to equipment for a small amount of time (normally for 5
to 10 minutes). Beyond the minutes of autonomy that the UPS supplies, this gained time also
allows the equipment to be switched to other energy sources. Some UPSs can also be directly
attached to the computer (e.g. with a USB cable) so that it can order its own shutting off in case
of a power outage and thus avoid any data loss.
CHAPTER:1 SURVEY REPORT
CHAPTER:2 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
& STATEMENT OF UDP
CHAPTER:3 DISCRIPTION OF UDP
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & ITS WORKING
CHAPTER: 4 PROJECT WORKDONE&
4.2 FUTURE OUTLINE
We first discussed about the various project topic. We took opinion of few. We visited
industries. also but we did not get any interesting idea. Then we started looking for the project on
internet. We searched different sites which includes information regarding our filed. The sites
which are visited by us is as follow: www.beyondlogic.org, www.wekipedia.com
www.alldatasheet.com, www.howstuffworks.com.)We also took references from different books
like electric circuit, basic electronics, machine-1 and machine-2 etc. Then we saw list of project
names on internet. We read details of many projects. Then we saw this project on net and we
studied it in details. We found this project interesting and useful in industries. We finally
discussed it in our group and selected it by our side. Then we also took reference of our seniors
and professors of our college. They also gave us positive feedback. Then finally we saw it to our
guide and he accepted our project topic.
CHAPTER NO. 2
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION &
STATEMENT OF UDP
2.1 STATEMENT OF UDP
2.1 STATEMENT OF UDP
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that protects electronic equipment from
power uncertainties. A UPS is a device that is interfaced between the electric network (connected
to utility power) and the materials that need protecting.
The UPS allows the materials to be switched to emergency battery power for several minutes
in case of electrical problems, in particular during:
Power line disturbances, i.e. a split second power outage that can cause a computer to
Power outages, corresponding to a break in the power supply for a given amount of time
Overvoltage, i.e. a nominal value greater than the maximum value needed for the normal
functioning of electrical appliances
Undervoltage, i.e. a nominal value less than the maximum value needed for the normal
functioning of electrical appliances
Voltage spikes, i.e. high amplitude transient (short-term) overvoltage. These spikes are
caused when powerful devices are stopped or started and overtime can damage electrical
Lightening, which is a source of extreme overvoltage that occur suddenly during bad
Most electrical disruptions are tolerated by computer systems. However, sometimes they can
cause data loss and service interruptions and even material damages.
CHAPTER NO. 3
2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
2.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & ITS WORKING
2.3 COMPONENT LIST
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
The ever increasing importance of computers in industry and commerce will increase the
need for quality, high stability and interruption free power supplies.
A clean ac power source is the fundamental to the operation of most sensitive electronic
equipment, and many new and sophisticated circuits are designed to overcome the effects of
disturbances normally found in the mains ac supply.
In order to protect a sensitive system from power losses and blackouts, an alternative
power source is required that can switch into operation immediately when disruption occurs. An
interruptible power supply (UPS) is just such an alternative source. A UPS generally consists of
a rectifier, battery charger, a battery bank and inverter circuit which converts the commercial ac
input into dc suitable for input to the battery bank and the inverter. The rectifier should have its
input protected and should be capable of supplying power to the inverter when the commercial
supply is either slightly below the normal voltage or slightly above.
3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & ITS WORKING
This is the circuit diagram of a simple UPS that can deliver 12V unregulated and 5V
regulated DC. The transformer T1 steps down the mains voltage to 12V AC and then the bridge
B1 rectifies it. The rectified signal is smoothed by the capacitor C1.When the mains supply is
available the battery will be charged via diode D3 and the regulator IC gets supply via diode D5.
12V and 5V DC will be available at the output terminals. When mains supply is not available the
battery supplies current to the regulator IC and to the 12V DC terminal through diode D4.Also,
the diode D3 blocks reverse flow of current during battery mode. Capacitors C2 and C3 acts as
working principle of UPS From basic principles in terms of application, UPS is a device
that contains stored energy in order to inverter as the main component, regulated stable
frequency output power protection equipment. Mainly by the rectifier, batteries, power inverters
and static switch of several components.
3.3 COMPONENT LIST
TRANSFORMER (230 – 12 V AC)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7805)
Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of power.
Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power
supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low
FIG 2.1: A TYPICAL TRANSFORMER
The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is
no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic
field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit
symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little power so the power output is (almost)
equal to the power input. Note that as voltage is stepped down and current is stepped up.
3.3.2 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7805
The purpose of a voltage regulator is to keep the voltage in a circuit relatively close to a
desired value. They are one of the most common electronic components, the are used since a
power supply can produce high current that can damage one component/or whole of the circuit.
Voltage regulators have variety of functions. It all depend on the application. Voltage can be
changed by varing the source voltage or Varyng the input impedance of the regulator being used.
• Output Current up to 1A.
• Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V.
• Thermal Overload Protection.
• Short Circuit Protection.
• Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), to direct current
(DC), current that flows in only one direction, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have
many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. In this
project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave
rectification. In positive half cycle only two diodes( 1 set of parallel diodes) will conduct, in
negative half cycle remaining two diodes will conduct and they will conduct only in forward bias
Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier
and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and
load is maintained constant..
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use of this
filter is very limited. This filter is also used in circuits where the power-supply ripple frequency
is not critical and can be relatively high. Below figure can show how the capacitor changes and
UPS battery is used as a storage energy device, which consists of several cells in series, with
a capacity to maintain its size determines the discharge (supply) time. Its main function is: When
the electricity is normal, the energy converted into chemical energy stored in the battery internal;
when the electricity fails, the chemical energy into electrical energy provided to the inverter or
3.3.6 STATIC SWITCH
static switch also known as static switch, which is a non-contact switch, is to use two
SCR (SCR) reverse parallel composition of a communication switch, its closed and disconnected
from the logic controller control. Conversion and the model is divided into two kinds of type
and. Conversion-type switch is mainly used for two-way power supply system, its role is to
achieve all the way to another road from the automatic switching; and model switch is mainly
used for parallel inverters with electricity or more inverter.
CHAPTER NO. 4
PROJECT WORK DONE
3.1 PROJECT WORK DONE
3.2 FUTURE OUTCOMES
3.1 PROJECT WORK DONE
FINDING THE TITAL OF PROJECT
COLLECTION OF DATA FROM INTERNET
GET DETAIL OF COMPONENT
ANALYSIS OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
PREPARATION OF THE REPORT WITH
3.2 FUTURE OUTCOMES
COLLECT THE COMPONENT FROM MARKET
TESTING OF CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
PREPARE FINAL REPORT