Thefloor plan is the heart of a set of construction drawings. • All trade workers refer to the floor plan. • The floor plan is the basis for many other plans. • Actually a section drawing. 4
Information that should be included on the floor plan includes: • Exterior and interior walls. • Size and location of windows and doors. • Built-in cabinets and appliances. • Permanent fixtures. • Stairs. • Fireplaces. (continued) 5
• Walks, patios, and decks.• Room names.• Material symbols.• Location and size dimensions.• Drawing scale.• Related structures are frequently included. 6
Many common features found on a floor plan are identified in this drawing.(Sater Design Collection, Inc.) 7
Materialsymbols or material hatch patterns are used to denote each material. 8
Only information about the basic size and location of stairs and fireplaces will usually be recorded on the floor plan.Stairs will show direction of flight, number of risers, and width of stairs.Fireplaces will show basic depth and width, opening design, and 12
A fireplace may be represented using a simplified or detailed symbol. The detailed symbol is usually preferred. 13
Note Information about a set of stairs that is typically included on the floor plan. The note shown “UP 14 R” tells the reader that the set of stairs has 14 risers. The width of the stairs shown is given as 4’ from the center of the walls on each side of the stairs. 14
Centerlines are used to locate the openings for windows and doors in frame walls. Dimensions are given to the side of the openings in a masonry wall. Openings for windows are sash width. Openings for doors are actual width. Sills are drawn for windows and exterior doors. Door swing is usually indicated. 15
Windows and doors should be located in a frame wall using a centerline. Door swing is also shown. Notice that the dimension from the outside wall to the center of the door is 4’-6” 16
Hidden (dashed) lines are used to show that an opening does not extend to the ceiling. 17
Alphabet of lines: commonly used architectural drawings Phantom line – alternate positions, repeated details, and paths of motion Visible lines – outline of buildings and walls Hidden lines – edges of surface that are not visible
Center lines – center of an arc or circle Dimension and extensions lines – extent and direction for measurements • Dimension – size and location • Extension – termination point of dimension Break lines – object continues on, but the complete view is not shown Section lines – feature that has been sectioned, crosshatch lines
Symbols: represent plumbing, electrical fixtures, doors, windows, and other objects in a house
Kitchen cabinets, bath vanities, fixtures, and appliances are also shown on the floor plan.We must learn to recognize standard symbols which are used for these features. 21
Several outside features are usually included on the floor plan.Walks, patios, and decks are examples.The size and materials are typically noted on the plan.Consider these elements as part of the total plan. 22
Standards are different in different career areas. Civil, Electrical, Construction and other areas follow similar practices, but sometimes with less need for precision in measurements. Dimensioned drawings are a part of a contractual document.
Dimensions on a floor plan show size and location of the features. In architectural drafting, dimension lines are continuous lines with the dimension figure placed above the line. 24
Recommended method of dimensioning frame wall construction. 25
Various means to terminating ends • arrow head • dot • tick Normally,dimensions are shown ABOVE dimension line Ifdimension is needed for construction, it should be on drawing
Dimension figures are always parallel to the dimension line. There is consistency with the type of termination symbol used for dimension lines. (arrow head, tic mark or dots) The following slide shows the different methods of ending the dimension lines 27
Dimensions are recorded in feet and inches. Feet and inch marks may be omitted. Dimensions less than 1 are usually indicated as 1/2", 2", 6", etc. Dimensions for interior frame walls are to the center of the wall. Dimensions for exterior frame walls are to the outside of the stud wall. 29
Solid masonry walls (cast concrete, block, brick, or stone) are usually dimensioned as shown. 30
Brick veneer walls are dimensioned to the outside of the stud wall. Solid masonry walls are dimensioned to the outside of the wall. Overall dimensions are needed to provide the total length and width of the structure or major parts of the structure. 31
Notes are often necessary to present information that cannot be represented by dimensions or symbols. Notes are usually placed so as to be read from the bottom of the sheet. There are two types of notes used: General Notes and Specific Notes 32
Frame Construction • dimensions usually start at the exterior surface of the stud wall • interior walls usually dimensioned to the center of partitions
Frame Construction • Located by their center lines
Masonry Construction • Openings are dimensioned to the edges of the masonry surface openings
(Donald F. Sowa, A.R.A.) 36
Using CADD speeds up the process of drawing and designing a floor plan. Automatic wall generation, repetitive use of symbols, dimensioning features, and elimination of hand lettering reduce drafting time. 40
Residential floor plans are usually drawn at 1/4" = 1-0". 41
(SoftPlan Systems, Inc.) 42
Shows an object like you would see in a photograph Give a three dimensional view of a room or structure Three common types • Isometric • Oblique • Perspective
North ArrowsThe purpose of a northarrow is to indicate thenorth direction andtherefore the orientationof the building in relationto the sun.
Section MarksSection marks are used to indicate where sections are being taken or cut.Architectural practices are very similar to that used in engineering drawing.Because of the complexity of architectural drawings cutting plane lines aregenerally omitted and only the arrow indicating the direction of sight of the sectionview is shown. The section call-out consists of a 1/2" diameter circle, an arrowindication the direction of sight, and two numbers. The upper number/letterindicates the name of the section on the sheet and the lower number refers to thesheet where the section view is drawn.The lettering in the section call-out circle is always horizontal regardless of thedirection of the arrow. The arrow is a 45 degree line, tangent to the circle. Name of the section view B A-5 B B A-5 A-5 Sheet reference
Section MarksThe arrow can be left open or colored in. The short line segments extending fromthe circle represent the cutting plane line. They can be single lines, double lines, oralternating thick and thin lines to conform to the overall drawing style. B B B B B A-5 A-5 A-5 A-5 A-5 B A-5 Generally a section call-out consists of two circles, one on each end of the cutting plane line. It is permissible to omit one of the circles and replace it with a simple arrow. These arrows are simple and can be left open or colored in.
Title BlocksTitle blocks are a very important part of theoverall drawing. They contain informationnot given directly on the drawing withdimensions or notes. The followinginformation is generally provided in the titleblock: Title of the project/name of the drawing Name and address of the client. Name and address of the architectural company. Date of the completion of the drawing package. Scale of the drawing. Drawing Number. Architects professional stamp.
Sheet LayoutTitle blocks are added and placed alongthe bottom and/or the right side of thedrawing paper.A north arrow (if applicable) is placed inthe upper left corner of the sheet.In general all of the drawing areashould be filled.The main drawing should be thedominate picture on the sheet withdetail drawings and general notesrelated to the main drawing placedaround it.All drawings, details, and notes shouldbe titled. Titles are placed beneath thepicture.
Architectural Drafting Line WorkLines used in architectural drafting will conform to the recommended ANSI draftingstandards.Visible Object lines are the most important lines on the drawing, therefore they aremade thick and dense black.Border lines are made thicker than visible object lines to contrast strongly with allother lines on the drawing.Hidden lines are dashed lines with 1/8" dashes and 1/16" spaces. Hidden lines willrepresent an item(s) not able to be seen in a particular view.Center lines are thin, dense black lines. A center line is traditionally a long line-dash-long line center line. This type of line is used wherever possible. Center linesare used to indicate the center of an object or feature.Lines used for dimensioning, crosshatching lines. match lines, and conventionalbreak lines are drawn as thin, dense black lines.
Architectural Drafting Line WorkArrowheads can be either open, closed, solid, or thetraditional slash as shown.Other types of symbols can be used in place of thearrowhead or slash. These includetriangles, perpendicular lines, and dots.In all cases, the style of arrowheads should not bemixed on a drawing. OPEN CLOSED SOLID SLASH
DimensioningThe dimension line is a continuous, unbroken line withthe dimension figure placed above the line.The Aligned system is used as opposed to theunidirectional system of dimensioning. 16-0"
Buildings in PlanThe plan view of a building should emphasize the horizontal dimensions ofthe structure and therefore the edges should be drawn bold, sharp, andaccurately
Buildings in PlanA building with a pitched roof should betextured to increase thethree-dimensional quality. Thedirection of the lines can emphasizethe actual building materials and thedirection in which they were laid oremphasize the slop of pitchedsurfaces. The sun side of the roofshould have a lighter texture than theshaded side or simply left white.The simplest way to highlight astructure is to crosshatch the entirebuilding area or hatch around theperimeter of the structure. The overallrepresentation of the structure shouldconform to the overall style of thedrawing and the other symbols used.