TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. NANOTECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 1.1 HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 1.2 DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 2. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING 2.1 NANOMACHINES 2.2 NANOBOTS 3. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS 3.1 WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT 3.2 NANOELECTRONICS: APPLICATIONS UNDER DEVELOPMENT 4. NANOTECHNLOGY IN MEDICINE 4.1 DRUG DELIVERY 4.2 THERAPY TECHNICS 4.3 ANTI-MICROBIAL TECHNIQUES 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 6. REFERENCES
NANOTECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY - Moore’s Law - Development of nanotechnology since 1965
NANOTECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW DEFINITION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY First what is Nano? Nano - A prefix - From Greek word náno - meaning dwarf - Extremely small - In the names of units of measure – one billionth -Nano meter scale - one billionth of a meter ( x10-9 m. )
NANOTECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW What is Technology? Technology – the branch of knowledge that deals with creation in the fields of : - Engineering - Industrial arts - Applied science - Pure science Now what is Nanotechnology? - The engineering of functional systems at a molecular scale - The manipulation of the structure of matter at the molecular level - The “bottom up” approach of building materials from a nanometer scale using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, highly advanced products. - Basically mean small technology
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING 2. 1 NANOMACHINES I-switch - ADNA nanomachine - Externally triggered by protons - Based on fluorescence resounance energy transfer(FRET) - Functions as a pH(a measure of acidity) sensor
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING Drosophila cells with the I-switch inside their endosomes. I-switch mapping out spatial and temporal pH changes associated with endosome maturation.
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING Nanoimpellers - Nanotubes made of light-sensitive silica - Carries cancer-killing drugs - Targets only cancer cells - Injected into human cancer cells in vitro How does it work? When light strikes the silica - Tiny tails inside the tubes wag back and forth - Creates a current that releases the drugs out of the tube
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING A cancer cell culture from a kidney tumour is shown.
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING 2.2 NANOBOTS Mechanical Nanobots Consists of: - Head - Two arms - Two legs Fictional Nanobot
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENGINEERING Biological Nanobot Nanobot Made of Bacteria - Can be injected with catheter - Can be guided with magnetic field - It’s purpose is to deliver a toxic payload
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS 3.1 WAYS OF INPROVEMENT: - Reduce the weight and power consumption. - Improve display screens on electronics devices. - Increase the density of memory chips. - Reduce the size of transistors used in integrated circuits.
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS 3.2 NANOELECTRONICS: APPLICATIONS UNDER DEVELOPMENT - Building transistors - Using electrodes made from nanowires - Developing molecular-sized transistors - Using nanosized magnetic rings - Usage of carbon nanotubes
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE 4.1 DRUG DELIVERY - Employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs. - Oral administration of drugs.
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE 4.2 THERAPY TECHNIQUES - Buckyballs - Nanoshells - Nanoparticles - AluminosilicateNanoparticles - Nanofibers
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE 4.3 ANTI-MICROBIAL TECHNIQUES - Nanoparticle Cream - Nanocapsules - Cell repairs using Nanorobots
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION - From being a theory to something we can now see, words turned into reality. - Nanotechnology has evolved over the period of time for many decades, and is now showing its potential to the whole world. - The development of nanomachines such as: I-switch, nanoimpellers, nanobots etc. - Nanotechnology will increase your standard of living. - Up to today nanotechnology is what's in, what's new, and what's the latest technology being developed all over the world.
REFERENCES (IMAGES) Berger, M. (2009) http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id10028.jpg Bland, E. (2008) http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/04/14/gallery/cancer-cells-324x205.jpg 3. Anonimous (2010) http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_QIjZXwAi4ag/TIKuge55MGI/AAAAAAAABS8/Q 73ywLx2_5w/s1600/nanobots1.jpg 4. Anonimous (2010) http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_QIjZXwAi4ag/TIKxNvQ3hsI/AAAAAAAABTA/p Hkx_zQHXsk/s1600/Two-Legged-Nanobot-Can-Walk-on-DNA-2.jpg 5. Nature Education Editorial(June 25, 2009)http://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/student-voices/nanoparticle_concerns_getting_under_your1 Medgadget, internet journal of emerging medical tecnology,Wednesday, March 16, 2011 http://www.medgadget.com/archives/2011/03/researchers_use_gold_nanoparticles_as_drug_carrier_in_new_cancer_treatment.html Star Group Research, (01-19-10). http://www.pitt.edu/~astar/Star_research.htm
REFERENCES (TEXT) Anonymous. (2011). nano. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/nano Anonymous. (2011). Technology. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/technology 3. Treder, M. (2006,March 17). What is Nanotechnology? Retrieved from http://crnano.typepad.com/crnblog/2004/05/what_is_nanotec.html Berger, M. (2009, April 9). Synthetic DNA nanomachines go to work inside living cells Retrieved from http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=10028.php Bland, E. (2008, April 4). Nanoimpellers Zap Cancer Cells From Within Retrieved from http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/04/14/nanoimpeller-cancer.html National Cancer Institute Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer(Nanomedicine) Retrieved from http://www.understandingnano.com/medicine.html Center for Electron Transport in Molecular Nanostructures at Columbia University (Nanoelectronics) http://www.understandingnano.com/nanotechnology-electronics.html 8. History of Nanotechnology http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_nanotechnology