Indian empire that ruled formore than 300 years (1526to 1858), except for a briefperiod under the Sur sultans(1540-1555).
• Founded in 1526.• Dominated India between 17thand 18th centuries.• Empire ended in mid-1900s.• Descended from Mongolianancestors around Pakistan.• Population at height: between110 and 130 million people.• Sophisticated, mixed Indo-Persian culture.
Similarities: Differences: • Cuisine is very • Very different similar. Lots of meat. geographic areas. • Language is a mixture • Very different traditions. of multiple languages. • Clothing • Art is similar (nature). • Architecture is much different. • Time period.
• Empire founded in 1526 by Emperor Babur.• Prospered under first 6 emperors, referredto as the Great Mughals.• 2nd emperor, Humayan, lost several battlesto Sher Shah Suri, losing control ofHindustan.• 3rd emperor Akbar (circa 1700) regainedcontrol of Hindustan. Greatest Mughal ruler.• 5th ruler Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in1653.• Empire declined under 6th emperor,Aurangzeb. Wars of succession, local revolts.• By 1765, the Mughal emperor had become apensioner of the British East India Company.• Empire had several more mediocre rulers,finally ending in 1857 with expulsion to Burma(by British) of Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.
• Centralized government system.• Persian art/culture merged withnative Indian art/culture.• New trade routes with Arabs andTurks.• Mughlai cuisine.• New architectural style.• Landscape gardening.• Urdu language developedfrom the fusion of Indian andIslamic culture.• Urdu = Persian + Arabic + Turkish
• Known for manuscripts and Persianminiature paintings.• Very symbolic.• Involved a lot of nature (birds, flowers,animals, etc.)• Very colorful and detailed.•In 1680 Emporer Shah Jahan bannedmusic and painting from his court, but heallowed architectural art, such as the PearlMosque and the Taj Mahal.
• Nearly 400 monuments havesurvived a time-span of 132 years.•White marble and red sandstonewas favored.•Semi-precious gemstones werepopular (jade, crystal, etc.)• Used arches sparingly.• Symmetry and balance stressed.• Used octagons a lot.
• Kurta ~ an informaldress worn by Mughalmen and women.• Sometimes sewn withgold or silver threads.• Cut in long, flowingpanels for comfort;about knee-length.• Traditional wear inAfghanistan, Bangladesh,India, Pakistan, and SriLanka.
• Spicy• Dried fruit• Rich and Creamy• Known for various sauces• Numerous kabobs• Not vegetarian!
• Hyderabad, Jammu, and Kashmir were the only princely states that did not accede to either Indiaor Pakistan.• Currency is called the Rupee.• Language is a combination of Persian,Chagatai, and Urdu.