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The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
The Body In Action
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The Body In Action

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  • 1. THE BODY IN ACTION
  • 2. … There are 4 sub-topics Changing levels of performance Coordination movement The need for Energy
  • 3. Sub-Topic A.. MOVEMENT
  • 4. Functions of the Skeleton
    • A framework for support and attaching muscles
    • Protects internal organs
    • Made up of joints
    Ball&Socket Hinge How does each joint move ?
  • 5. Structure of Joints...
    • The capsule surrounds the joint and stops fluid leaking out
    • Ligaments hold bones together
    • The ends of bones are covered in Cartilage.This stops bones being damaged by acting as a shock absorber
    • Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant
    Where is this fluid made ?
  • 6. What type of joint is this? Where is it ? How does it move ?
  • 7. But what is bone made of ?
    • Tough,flexible fibres
    • Hard minerals
    • HOW DID WE SHOW THIS ?
    Remember the Chicken bones,Acid,and Bunsen Burner experiment ?
  • 8. Muscles Move Bones...
    • Muscles move joints and limbs when they CONTRACT
    • TENDONS attach muscles to bones.Tendons do not stretch
    • Joints need OPPOSING pairs of muscles
    One muscle contracts to bend the joint… … the other muscle contracts to straighten the joint
  • 9. … Feed Me NOW
  • 10. Sub-Topic B. The need for Energy...
    • The body uses up ENERGY all the time
    • The amount depends on Age,Gender,and Activity
    • FOOD provides our energy
    • Food with MORE energy than you need will be stored as FAT
    • ENERGY is released from food by a process called RESPIRATION
  • 11. Energy from Food ?
    • We need OXYGEN to release this energy
    • CARBON DIOXIDE and WATER are the waste products of respiration
    How does this gas exchange take place ?
  • 12. BREATHING...IN
    • The diaphragm contracts
    • This LOWERS it
    • Muscles pull RIBS UP & OUT
    • CHEST CAVITY
    • (Thorax) Incs.IT’s volume
    • This makes the LUNGS EXPAND
  • 13. BREATHING... OUT
    • DIAPHRAGM relaxes
    • This RAISES it
    • Muscles allow ribs to move DOWN & IN
    • Vol. Of Thorax DECREASES
    • Air is forced OUT of the lungs
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  • 23. Can you identify the structures In these lungs ?
  • 24. MUCUS AND CILIA...
    • Lets GASES DISSOLVE so that they can DIFFUSE
    • Sticks to all the inner surfaces of the lungs ‘cos its STICKY
    • It TRAPS dust and Micro-organisms which may be breathed in
    • Cells lining the airways are covered in tiny hairs called CILIA
    • CILIA move back and forth to sweep mucus up towards the throat
    THIS IS HOW THE DUST AND MICRO-ORGANISMS ARE REMOVED FROM THE AIRWAYS
  • 25. This is a film of Cilia in the airways….
  • 26. EXCHANGE OF GASES
    • OXYGEN DIFFUSES FROM THE AIR SAC INTO THE BLOOD
    • CARBON-DIOXIDE DIFFUSES FROM THE BLOOD INTO THE AIR-SAC
    • AIR-SACS HAVE A LARGE SURFACE AREA
    • AND………
    • A VERY GOOD BLOOD SUPPLY
  • 27. WHAT MAKES THE LUNGS GOOD FOR GAS EXCHANGE ?
    • THIN- Air-sacs are very thin to make DIFFUSION easier
    • MOIST- Air-sacs are moist so that GASES can DISSOLVE
    • LARGE SURFACE AREA-size of a tennis court(both Lungs)
    • GOOD BLOOD SUPPLY-so that large volumes of gases can be exchanged
  • 28. You need to know the path followed by the Blood as it passes through the heart ! ! !
  • 29.  
  • 30. The Heart has it’s own BLOOD SUPPLY from these CORONARY ARTERIES
  • 31. Heart Fact sheet
    • Four chambers (Right /left Atria and Ventricles)
    • Four Valves prevent backflow of blood between the chambers and from the Arteries leaving the heart
    • Thicker left ventricle (than right)- it has to pump blood around the whole body
    • Blood to the heart muscle is from the Coronary Arteries
  • 32. THE OTHER BITS... Look at some pictures of blood vessels and discuss How their structure is related to their function
  • 33. What’s the difference ? Artery Vein
  • 34. Arteries have thick muscular walls….. Why ? Why can you feel a pulse in Arteries ?
  • 35. … and this is a vein,with it’s valve Why do veins have valves ?
  • 36. Blood around the Body...
  • 37. What is the Blood made up of ?
  • 38. … The red team Why is this cell different ? Concave shape increases surface area To carry more oxygen as OXYHAEMOGLOBIN
  • 39. … and the White team The white cells protect and KILL !
  • 40. And not forgetting… They are involved in blood clots
  • 41. LOVE IS LIKE... OXYGEN
    • Haemoglobin LOVES Oxygen
    • It’s a dark-red chemical found in the Red Blood Cells
    • They transport the oxygen from the lungs to the cells as ?
    • OXYHAEMOGLOBIN
    • The oxygen enters and leaves the red blood cells by DIFFUSION
    All cells use up oxygen to release ENERGY
  • 42. BLOOD PLASMA...
    • The plasma is the fluid which carries the Blood cells
    • The plasma also contains dissolved food from the digestive system to the cells
    • Carbon Dioxide is also carried from the cells to the lungs in the plasma
    This exchange of substances takes place In the blood CAPILLARIES
  • 43. What’s so good about Capillaries ?
    • Very thin walls(one cell thick) for DIFFUSION
    • Next to EVERY cell in the body
    • Large numbers and huge length,giving LOTs and LOTS of surface area for DIFFUSION
  • 44. SUB-TOPIC C C00RDINATION
  • 45. This sub-topic looks at… …… How they all work together
  • 46. We have two eyes because…
    • Judgement of distance is more accurate
    • Each eye sees a slightly different image
    • The brain puts the two views together- a3D image is formed
    Using two eyes like this is called BINOCULAR VISION
  • 47. Binocular vision...
    • Is a three-dimensional picture
    • It is produced in the visual centres in the Brain
    • Allows distance to be judged more accurately
    What type of animals will binocular vision Be useful to ?
  • 48. BINOCULAR VISION is particularly useful to PREDATORY animals. ... It enables them to judge distance accurately Before pouncing on their prey !
  • 49. What do the parts of this eye do ?
  • 50. Did you get them right ?
    • The CORNEA is the clear layer at the front of the eye, and ?
    • The IRIS is the coloured ring at the front and ?
    • The LENS is made of clear jelly and ?
    … it helps to focus the light coming to the eye ..it adjusts the size of the PUPIL in response to changing levels of light ..muscles attached to it change its thickness to adjust focusing
  • 51. Other parts you need to know...
    • The RETINA is a layer of CELLS.
    • They are all LIGHT-SENSITIVE and change light into ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
    • The OPTIC NERVE is connected to the BRAIN. It carries these signals to the BRAIN.
    The optic nerve is the only part of the brain that Is visible without surgery !!!!! Why is this ?
  • 52. We have two Ears because...
    • As with the Eyes,having two Ears makes judgment of a stimulus better
    • Two Ears allows more accurate judgment of the direction of SOUND
  • 53. What do the parts of the Ear do ?
  • 54. You Should know that...
    • The EAR DRUM is a thin membrane which picks up SOUND WAVES as vibrations
    • Bones in the ear amplify these vibrations and pass them on to the COCHLEA. What are these bones called ?
    • They are the HAMMER, ANVIL and STIRRUP
  • 55.  
  • 56. Where does the sound go ?
    • The COCHLEA picks up vibrations and changes them to ELECTRICAL signals
    • The AUDITORY NERVE connects the ear to the BRAIN.It carries signals from the Cochlea
    What other structures does the Auditory nerve Link to the Brain ????
  • 57. ... Semi-Circular Canals
    • 3 Tubes at right-angles to each other
    • Fluid-filled to detect head movements in 3 planes
    • Each tube possesses an AMPULLA,containing a RECEPTOR which senses the movement of the fluid
    • The detected movements are converted into electrical signals.
    As always in Biology, STRUCTURE is related to FUNCTION…
  • 58. More about Balance...
    • The Auditory Nerve carries information to a Part of the Brain called the CEREBELLUM
    • This controls muscular activity essential for BALANCE
    • We also need information from the EYES and LIMBS for balance
  • 59. The BRAIN uses this 3-Dimensional information From the SEMI-CIRCULAR CANALS and the Other information from the EYES and LIMBS To help control BALANCE and tell us which way Up we are !!! COORDINATION IN ACTION
  • 60. The Human Nervous System.. What are its components ??? Which of these parts make up the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ???
  • 61. Reactions to Stimuli…
    • Sense organs send information via the NERVES to the Brain about our environment
    • This info travels along nerves as ELECTRICAL IMPULSES
    • The SPINAL CORD connects the nerves to the Brain
    Do you know what happens next ???
  • 62. The BRAIN sorts out the information and decides what action is needed... Other nerves then carry IMPULSES To the appropriate muscles These muscles then make the appropriate response...
  • 63. What is a REFLEX ACTION ?
    • A RAPID response to a stimulus
    • The response is AUTOMATIC
    • INVOLUNTARY,so the Brain is not involved
    • Protect the body from danger
    Why are reflex actions very quick ???
  • 64. … because there is a direct link in the CNS between the sensory nerves and The motor nerves for a correct response
  • 65. Human Brains... The parts WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW ?
  • 66. Brain Parts……….
    • CEREBRUM – Memory,Personality,Conscious thought
    • CEREBELLUM – balance,Movement,coordination
    • MEDULLA – Heart rate,Blood pressure, Breathing rate.
  • 67. Sub topic D – Changing levels of Performance
  • 68. Muscle fatigue……..
    • When muscles work very hard or for a long time…
    • … they begin to ache and stop working well.
    • … Why does this happen ?
  • 69. It’s all about the Oxygen !
    • Without enough Oxygen, Muscle cells CANNOT release enough ENERGY efficiently.
    • A waste product builds up in the muscles….LACTIC ACID
    • SO…… Muscle Fatigue is caused by a lack of OXYGEN and a build up of LACTIC ACID in the Muscle Cells.
  • 70. Anaerobic Respiration...
    • Lack of oxygen causes cells to respire this way
    • Glucose is broken down to Lactic acid
    • Less energy released
    … But… This causes problems….
  • 71. ... Payback time !!!
    • A build up of Lactic Acid in the Muscles causes PAIN and STIFFNESS
    • Has to be broken down using oxygen to allow the muscles to recover
    • The volume of Oxygen needed to do this is called…
    ... THE OXYGEN DEBT...
  • 72. So what is ‘recovery time’?
    • .. The time taken to repay the Oxygen Debt
    • The fitter you are, the shorter your recovery time
    so how does this work then ????
  • 73. Some biology facts...
    • Exercise increases the rate at which energy is needed from your food
    • So more food AND oxygen are necessary
    • The Heart speeds up to get extra food and oxygen to the muscles( so your pulse increases)
    • Breathing speeds up to take in more Oxygen and get rid of more Carbon Dioxide
    Is this why your pulse and breathing rates Increase when you exercise ????
  • 74. How do you decrease Recovery Time ?
    • Fit people( such as athletes) have shorter recovery times
    • This is because their Pulse and breathing rates,and Lactic Acid levels rise much less than in unfit people
    • Remember,recovery time is the time taken to repay Oxygen debt,and therefore for breathing and pulse rates to return to normal
    So the fitter you are, the shorter your recovery time will be...
  • 75. TRAINING
  • 76. What does Training do ?
    • Training improves your body’s efficiency in several ways...
    • - makes your heart able to pump more blood every beat
    • - increases blood flow through the muscles
    • - increases lung volume so more oxygen is taken in with each breath
    So what effects does all this have on your body ?????
  • 77. ... And so
    • Oxygen and food reach the muscles more quickly
    • Waste substances are removed more rapidly
    • More oxygen means less Lactic acid is produced
    So your pulse rate can stay LOWER !
  • 78. ... So remember...
    • Recovery time is ?
    • The time it takes to repay the oxygen debt
    • If you are fit,you make less ?
    • Lactic Acid
    Training allows you to exercise for longer and harder before MUSCLE FATIGUE sets in ...
  • 79. TRAINING CAN BE FOR EVERYBODY !!!

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