Genetics and plant breeding seminar

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  • hello jaydev... you have an informative presentation... i hav a class on plant and animal genetics... and your presentation would be of great help to my students. I'll be glad if you could share this through email. ykrathour@gmail.com thanks
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  • hello jaydev... you have an informative presentation... i hav a class on plant and animal genetics... and your presentation would be of great help to my students. I'll be glad if you could share this through email. pauldoronila@gmail.com thanks
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  • 1. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 2. Course SeminaronBreeding Concept & Crop Improvement in Chickpea(Cicer arietinum L.)Speaker :Jaydev Kumar, Id. No. :A-5493/10Course No.: GPB 591, Cr. :1(0+1)Date : 04-10 -2011, Time :11.00A.M.Course Instructors: Dr. Ranjeet Singh & Dr. S.R. VishwakarmaDepartment of Genetics & Plant BreedingN.D.U.A.& T. Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 3. Highlights1. Introduction2. Present use of chickpea3. Floral biology (emasculation/ pollination)4. Breeding objectives5. Breeding techniques6. Quality components7. Varieties released and important traits related cultivars8. Production constraints9. Conclusion.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 4. IntroductionChickpea [Cicer arietinum (L.)] belongs to genus- Cicer ,family-Fabaceae, and sub family- Faboideae. It’s origin is considered inSouth Eastern Turkey (Ladizinsky, 1975).The name “Cicer” is of Latin origin, translated from the Greek wordkikus meaning force or strength. Duschak (1871) traced the origin of the word to the Hebrew kirkes,where kirkes means round.The word “arietinum” is also Latin, translated from the Greek wordkrios, another name for both ramhead and chickpea (van der Maesen1987).Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 5. In India, total production of chickpea was 7.48 million tonnes from of8.21 million ha area with average yield of 895 kg/ha in year 2009-10.In area , production & productivity of Uttar Pradesh possessed 0.55million ha., 0.56 million tonnes, 1014 kg ha-1respectively in year2009-10. Based on seed size and colour, cultivated chickpeas are of two types(Cubero 1975).1. Macrosperma (kabuli type, 2n=16). The seeds of this type are large(100-seed mass >25 g), round or ramhead, and cream-coloured. Theplant is medium to tall in height, with large leaflets and white flowers.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229Kabuli chana Desi chana
  • 6. 2.Microsperma (desi type, 2n=14 or 16). The seeds of this type aresmall and angular in shape. The seed colour varies from cream, black,brown, yellow to green. The plants are short with small leaflets andpurplish flowers.Desi type chickpea is also known as “ Bengal gram” but Kabuli typechickpea called “ Garbanzos gram” (Spanish). In India, majorchickpeas producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka etc.Globally, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is important cool season foodlegume.Both cultivated chickpeas are diploid.Secondary centre of origin of chickpea is Asia minor.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 7. Present use of chickpeaChickpea is an important rabi pulse grown in India and mature grainsare uses as whole or split in Dhal, vegetable, besan etc.Chickpea is considered to have medicinal effects & it is used for bloodpurification.It is eaten boiled, fried, & parched. Ground into flour, it is one of thechief ingredient together with ghee & sugar in many form of Indianconfectionery.The parched gram together with rice and jaggery is widely eaten as asnack, especially on long journeys, as a substitute for cooked food.The skin & broken bite of the fried gram are common cattle feed, likethe husks of the pods and dry stem and leaves obtained at threshingtime & the dry stem & esteemed best among all thepulses.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 8. Various dish prepared by using of chickpeaFried gramGazakPakorivegetableGram salad
  • 9. Floral biologyThe flower of chickpea is zygomorphic, solitary, axillary & polypetalousstandard aestivation.Calyx is gamosepalous, lanceolate & densely covered with hairs.The outer most petal is large called standard petal.Two lateral petals are lanceolate and curved. They are called wing petals oralae.Two anterior and partly fused innermost petals are called keel petals orcarina.Stamens are ten in number in diadelphous (9 anthers are fused +1 anther isfree) condition and ovary is superior (G1).Majority of buds commence opening between 8.00 a.m. to 11.00 a.m.Fruits (pods) are containing one/two or three seeds.After fertilization, pod formation starts in 5-6 days.Floral biologyThe flower of chickpea is zygomorphic, solitary, axillary & polypetalousstandard aestivation.Calyx is gamosepalous, lanceolate & densely covered with hairs.The outer most petal is large called standard petal.Two lateral petals are lanceolate and curved. They are called wing petals oralae.Two anterior and partly fused innermost petals are called keel petals orcarina.Stamens are ten in number in diadelphous (9 anthers are fused +1 anther isfree) condition and ovary is superior (G1).Majority of buds commence opening between 8.00 a.m. to 11.00 a.m.Fruits (pods) are containing one/two or three seeds.After fertilization, pod formation starts in 5-6 days.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 10. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229Flower stature of Kabuli type gram & Desitype chana.
  • 11. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 12. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad--224229
  • 13. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad--224229
  • 14. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad--224229
  • 15. Figure : A typical chickpea plantFloral diagram
  • 16. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 17. EmasculationMaterial required: Forceps, alcohol to sterilize the forceps, coloured nylonthreads, lens, pencil, and record book.The process for removal of immature stamen or anthers or the killing ofpollen grains of a flower without affecting in any way of the femalereproductive organs is known as emasculation.The bud to be emasculated should be held gently at the base with the thumband fore finger. Snip off the frontal sepal. Push the keel petal downwards byslitting it with a fine-pointed forceps to expose the anthers.Remove the anthers and count them, and also check with the help of a lens toensure that no anther is in the flower.The pedicel, style and stigma are fragile. Therefore, care must be taken not todamage these parts during emasculation. A coloured nylon thread is tiedloosely around the pedicel of the emasculated flower for identification. Theemasculated flowers are usually not covered with a selfing bag to preventcross- pollination.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 18. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad--224229
  • 19. PollinationThe pollen grains reaching on the stigma of a flower. In other words, whenthe pollen lands onto stigma of a flower.Freshly viable pollen grains are collected & used for dusting on the stigmasof emasculated flower .Mature pollen is applied to the stigmas with the help of cammel hair brush,piece of paper & forceps.Singh and Auckland (1975) reported that at ICRISAT at Patancheru, India;pollination can be done at any time between 0800 to1700 hrs., and thispractice gives an almost similar pod-set.The natural rate of pod-setting in chickpea lies between 18 to 59%. Singhand Auckland (1975) reported 24% pod-setting when artificial pollinationwas done on the same day as emasculation and 15% pod-setting when it wasdone one day after emasculation. Low seed-setting in chickpea is mainly dueto high humidity and cloudy weather.PollinationThe pollen grains reaching on the stigma of a flower. In other words, whenthe pollen lands onto stigma of a flower.Freshly viable pollen grains are collected & used for dusting on the stigmasof emasculated flower .Mature pollen is applied to the stigmas with the help of cammel hair brush,piece of paper & forceps.Singh and Auckland (1975) reported that at ICRISAT at Patancheru, India;pollination can be done at any time between 0800 to1700 hrs., and thispractice gives an almost similar pod-set.The natural rate of pod-setting in chickpea lies between 18 to 59%. Singhand Auckland (1975) reported 24% pod-setting when artificial pollinationwas done on the same day as emasculation and 15% pod-setting when it wasdone one day after emasculation. Low seed-setting in chickpea is mainly dueto high humidity and cloudy weather.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 20. Breeding ObjectivesBreeding for high & stable yield.Breeding for shattering resistance.Breeding for biotic (disease & insect-pest resistance) & abiotic(salinity, drought, high temperature & cold resistance) stresses.Breeding for quality traits like- grain size, colour, cooking quality &nutritive value.Breeding for development of double poddedness varieties. Breeding for development of multi-resistance varieties.Induction of response to increase fertilization.To develop efficient plant types with erect growth up-right habit &vertical leaves with profuse podding & higher protein content.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 21. Breeding Techniques used for Crop ImprovementVarious procedures that are used for genetic improvement of crop plants arereferred to as plant breeding methods or plant breeding procedure.In chickpea , mainly three methods are employed for improvement of crop:1. Selection: A. Mass selection B. Pure line selection.2.Hybridization: A. Bulk method (Singh & Auckland,1976), B. Single seeddescent method, (Byth et al.,1980), C. Pedigree method (Byth et al.,1980),3.. Mutation breeding Selection MethodsSelection permits the reproduction only in those plant that have the desirablecharacteristics, the plant have been selected.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 22. Mass SelectionMass selection refers to selection of superior plant on the basis of phenotypefrom a mixed population, their seeds are bulked & used to raise the nextgeneration.Merit: This is a good method for improvement of old cultivars & land races.This is also used for the purification of improved cultivars.Mass selected varieties provide good protection against diseases.Mass selected varieties are more stable in their performance than pure linevarieties.Demerits- Progeny test is not carried out in mass selection.The produce of varieties developed by mass selection is less uniformthan pure lines. Varieties developed through mass selection:JG 74, CSG 8962Mass SelectionMass selection refers to selection of superior plant on the basis of phenotypefrom a mixed population, their seeds are bulked & used to raise the nextgeneration.Merit: This is a good method for improvement of old cultivars & land races.This is also used for the purification of improved cultivars.Mass selected varieties provide good protection against diseases.Mass selected varieties are more stable in their performance than pure linevarieties.Demerits- Progeny test is not carried out in mass selection.The produce of varieties developed by mass selection is less uniformthan pure lines. Varieties developed through mass selection:JG 74, CSG 8962Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 23. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-2242291.From variable population, 200-2000 plants with similarbut desirable traits are selected.2. The seeds from selected plants are composited.1. The composited seeds are planted in apreliminary yield trials along with standard checks.2. Phenotype of the selected population is criticallyevaluated.1. Promising selections are evaluated in coordinatedyield trials at several locations.If outstanding, released as a new variety.Seed multiplication for distribution.Fig. Procedure of mass selection in self pollinated crops with out progeny test.Istyear2ndyear3rdto 5thyear6thyear
  • 24. Pure Line SelectionA large number of plants are selected from a homozygous populations ofself pollinated crop & are harvested individually, individual plant progeniesfrom them are evaluated & the best progeny is released as a new variety. A pure line variety is obtained from a single homozygous plant of a selfpollinated crop.Merit - This is a good method of isolating the best genotype for yield ,disease & insect resistance etc. from a mixed population of an old variety.Demerit- This method can isolate only superior genotype from the mixedpopulation. It can not be develop new genotype.Pure line varieties have poor adaptability due to narrow genetic base.Varieties developed through pure line selection:DCP 92-3, Chaffa, Dahod yellow, BDN 9-3, JG 315, KWR 108, GNG 146.Pure Line SelectionA large number of plants are selected from a homozygous populations ofself pollinated crop & are harvested individually, individual plant progeniesfrom them are evaluated & the best progeny is released as a new variety. A pure line variety is obtained from a single homozygous plant of a selfpollinated crop.Merit - This is a good method of isolating the best genotype for yield ,disease & insect resistance etc. from a mixed population of an old variety.Demerit- This method can isolate only superior genotype from the mixedpopulation. It can not be develop new genotype.Pure line varieties have poor adaptability due to narrow genetic base.Varieties developed through pure line selection:DCP 92-3, Chaffa, Dahod yellow, BDN 9-3, JG 315, KWR 108, GNG 146.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 25. Hybridization The mating or crossing of two dissimilar plants or lines is known ashybridization. In plants crossing is done by placing pollen grains fromone line or genotype, called the male parent on to the stigma of flowers ofthe other genotype, referred to as the female parent. The seeds as well as the progeny resulting from hybridization are knownas hybrid or F1 & it’s advance generations are called segregatinggenerations. It consists of following breeding methods, given below:A. Bulk method (Singh & Auckland,1976), B. Single seed descentmethod (Byth et al., 1980), C. Pedigree method (Byth et al., 1980)Bulk method: In bulk method, F2 or the subsequent generations are harvestedin mass to raise the next generation. At the end of bulking period,individual plants are selected & evaluated in F8 generations & superiorprogenies released as a new cultivar. The method is also termed as massor population method..Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 26. Istyear Parents Selected plants are hybridized & harvest in bulk for next generation.IIndyear F1 F1 spaced-planted; seed harvest in bulk.IIIrdyear F2Seeds harvested in bulk.IVthto VIIthyears F3 -F6As in F2, may use artificial selection, disease, insect, etc.VIIIthyear F71.F7 is spaced-planted, 1. Individual plants selected, 3. Seedsharvested separately.IXthyear F81.Individual plant progenies grown. 2. Undesirable progenies eliminated.Xthyear F9 Preliminary yield trials using local cultivars & quality tests done.XIth to XIIIthyears F10-F12Multilocation yield trials using local cultivars & select the superiorlines for new release variety.XIVthyear F13 Seed increase for distribution begins.Fig: A scheme of bulk method for the isolation of homozygous lines in self-pollinated crops
  • 27. Single Seed Descent MethodA breeding procedure used with segregating populations of selfpollinated species in which plants are advanced by single seed fromone generation to the next is referred to as single seed descentmethod. This method was suggested by Goulden (1939).In this method, a single seed from each of the 1000-2000 F2 plants arebulked to raise the next generation. Similarly, in F3 & the subsequentgenerations one random seed is selected from every plant present inthe population & harvested in bulk to raise the next generation.This procedure is followed till F5or F6when the plants would havebecome nearly homozygous.Brim (1966) suggested that harvest of two or three seeds from plantfor using one seed for planting & another seeds for reserve (if seed forplanted to failure to germination automatically eliminate that is F2family) & separate operations.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 28. Istyear Parents Selected parents are hybridized.IIndyear F1 F1 space-planted , harvested in bulk.IIIrdyear F21.F2 densely planted, 2. From each plant , one random seed selected& bulked.IVthyear F31.F3 densely planted, 2. From each plant , one random seed selected& bulked.Vthto VIthyear F4-F5As in F3.VIIthyear F61. F6 space-planted, 2. 100-500 plants with desirable traits harvestedseparately.VIIIthyear F71. Individuals plant progenies grown, 2.Undesirable progenieseliminated, 3. Desirable homozygous progenies harvested in bulk.IXthyear F8Preliminary yield trial with a suitable check & quality test.Xthto XIIthyear F9-F11Coordinated yield trials; diseases & quality test.XIIIthyear F12Seed increase for distribution to farmers begins.Fig: Schematic representation of single seed descent method in self pollinated crops.
  • 29. Pedigree MethodPedigree refers to record of the ancestry of an individual selectedplant.Pedigree breeding is a method of genetic improvement of selfpollinated species in which superior genotypes are selected fromsegregating generations & proper record of ancestry of selected plantsare maintained in each generation.It is generally used when both the parents that are used in thehybridization have good agronomic traits or well adapted.It is more commonly used for the improvement of polygenic traits.The genetic constitution of the variety developed by this method ishomozygous & homogeneous, because it is progeny of singlehomozygote.ACHIEVEMENTS: T2, T1, T3, T5, Radhey, etc.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 30. P2P1F1F2F3F4F5F6F7F8 - F10F11Ist YearIIndYearIIIrdYearIVthYearVthYearVIthYearVIIthYearVIIIthYearIXth-XIthYearXIIthYearSelected plants are planted in a crossing block and crosses are made.Seeds are space-planted, & harvest in bulk.1. 2000-10000 plants space-planted. 2. 100-150 superior plants selected,harvested in separately.Individual plant progenies space-planted & superior plants selected.As above F3. & superior plant harvested in separately and grown generation.1.Individual plant progenies. progenies planted in multi-row plots. 2.Superiorplants selected.As in F5 & Preliminary yield trial may be conducted.Preliminary yield trials & quality tests.Coordinated yield trials. Disease &quality tests.Seed multiplication for farmer distribution.Fig. Schematic representation of the pedigree method in Bengal gram.
  • 31. Mutation BreedingThe genetic improvement of crop plants for various economic traitsthrough the use of induced mutation (mutation that are induced bythe treatment of mutagenic agents viz.; gamma rays, 5 B.U., E.M.S.,etc. ) is referred to as mutation breeding. A mutation breeding programme should be clearly planed & shouldbe large enough with sufficient facilities to permit an effectivescreening of large populations.Type : 1. Breeding for oligogenic traits 2. Breeding for polygenictraits.ACHIEVEMENTS: Mutant G 130,BG 1003, WCG 2, WCG3,WCG10, Sadhbhavana, BG 408, BG 413, BG 417Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 32. Istyear M1IIndyear M2IIIrdyear M3IVthYear M4Vth-VIIthYear M5-M7VIIIthYear M81. Treated seeds are space-planted. 2.Seeds from individualplants are harvested separately.1. Individual plants progenies grown. 2. Plants from rowscontaining the mutant allele (homozygous) harvested separately.1. Individual plant progenies grown. 2.Superior mutant(homozygous) and homogeneous population harvested in bulk.1.Preliminary yield trials & quality tests 2.Superior lines selected.Coordinated yield trials. Disease, quality tests,Superior lines released as a new variety.Seed multiplication for farmer distribution.Fig. A schematic representation of mutation breeding (for transfer of oligogenic traits) in bengal gram.
  • 33. Quality ComponentsChickpea is a very good source ofcarbohydrates & protein, which together constitute about 80% of the total dry seedweight.Protein & Amino acid:Chickpea seeds contain protein content that ranges between 12.6 to 30.5 % (Singhet al. 1997). The protein content of dhal is noticeably higher than that of the wholeseed indicating the effect of seed coat on the protein content in chickpea genotype.Chickpea seed also contains a considerable of amount non protein nitrogen (NPN),which also effect true protein content.A large variation in NPN would overestimate the true protein content of the sample andwould consequently affect the estimated protein intake in the diet. Although,genotype exists with higher protein content, no attempt has been made to combineDepartment of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 34. Nutritional composition of whole seed & dhal component of chickpeaComponents (%) Whole seed DhalProtein 22 24.5Starch 47.3 56.0Sugar 5.8 4.9Ash 3.2 2.8Fat 5.3 5.7Crude fiber 6.3 1.1Dietary fiber 19 11.3Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229•Chickpea generally meets adult human requirement for all essential amino acidsexcept methionine & cystine.•Based on the amino acid composition, chickpea is found to be of higher nutritive valueas compared to other legumes (Gupta and Kapoor, 1980 ). The levels of differentprotein fractions primarily control the essential amino acid composition of chickpeaseed protein, as they tend to differ with respect to their amino acid content.
  • 35. Chickpea contains considerable amount of vitamins B1 and B2, ascorbicacid and niacin.Anti-nutritional factors : It is well recognized that the majorityof food legumes including chickpea synthesize certain biologicallyactive substances commonly considered to be anti nutrition factorssince they have been shown to affect animal and human nutritionalfactors.Chickpea grain contains variable amount of anti nutritional factors.These, chickpea is known for it’s high levels of flatulence causingsugar namely, raffinose, stachyose. When considered together,raffinose and stachyose constitute nearly 40% of the total solublesugar present in chickpea ( Singh et al. 1982 ).Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 36. Chickpea is also known for its levels of trypsin and chemotrypsininhibitors, even though it is less problematic in comparison tosoybeans, peas.Polyphenols, which are interchangeably termed as tannins, are alsopresent in chickpea seeds, but they are mostly present in the seed coat(Singh 1984).Phytic acid is an inositol hexa phosphate, which forms complexes withminerals and protein thus interfering with their availability. Dhalsamples of chickpea contains considerable amount of phytic acid(Singh 1988) which can be lowered by germination & fermentation.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 37. Important characteristics of recently released varieties of chickpeaSl. No. Name ofcultivarsCentreresponsible fordevelopingYear ofreleaseAverageyield(q/ha)Reaction tomajor disease& pestRecommendedfor zones1 Avrodhi CSAU, Kanpur 1987 22-23 Res. to wilt NWPZ, NEPZ2 Pusa 267 IARI, New Delhi 1988 21-23 Res. to wilt NWPZ3 Bharati ICRISAT,Hyderabad1992 20-21 ,, SOUTH ZONE4 Sadabahar CSAU, Kanpur 1992 24-26 Tol. to wilt NEPZ5 BG 329 IARI, New Delhi 1993 20-23 Res.to wilt NWPZ6 Pusa 372 ,, ,, 20-21 ,, & blight NWPZ,NEPZ7 Vardan RAU,Sriganganagar1995 22-23 Res.to wilt NWPZ
  • 38. Sl.No.Name ofcultivar sCentreresponsible fordevelopingYear ofreleaseAverageyield(q/ha)Reactionto majordisease &pestRecommendedfor zones8 Pusa 362 IARI, New Delhi 1995 20-24 Tol. to wilt NWPZ9 KWR 108 CSAU, Kanpur 1996 22-25 Res.to wilt NEPZ10 Alok ,, ,, 20-22 ,, NWPZ11 Phule G 5 MPKVV, Rahuri 1986 22-25 Tol. to wilt CZ,NEPZ12 Pant G 186 Pantnagar 1997 16-20 Tol. to wilt &grey moldNEPZ13 JG 315 Jabalpur 1984 18-20 Res. to wilt CENTRA INDIA14 Kranti ICRISAT,Hyderabad1989 19-22 Res. to wilt CZ, SZ15 CSG 8962 Karnal 1998 20-22 Res. to wilt NWPZ
  • 39. Sl.No.Name ofcultivar sCentreresponsiblefor developingYear ofreleaseAverageyield (q/ha)Reaction tomajor disease& pestRecommended for zones16 BG 256 IARI, New Delhi 1984 19-22 Res. to wilt &BlightNEPZ, NWPZ17 Pragati CSAU, Kanpur 1994 17-20 Tol. to wilt U.P18 L 550 Ludhiana 1999 18-20 Tol. towilt NWPZ19 PBG 1 Ludhiana 1988 16-18 Tol. to blight NWPZ20 KPG 59 (Udai) CSAU, Kanpur 1992 18-20 Tol. to wilt NEPZ,21 GCP 105 JAU, Junagarh 2000 16-19 Tol. to blight NEPZ,22 WCG 10 SVBPUA&T,Meerut2008 10-22 Tol. to wilt NEPZ,23 WCG 3 ,, ,, 16-22 ,, ,,24 Sadhbhavana ,, 1998 20 ,, ,,25 BG 1003 IARI, Delhi 2000 22 ,, ,,
  • 40. Sl.No.Name ofcultivar sCentreresponsible fordevelopingYear ofreleaseAverageyield (q/ha)Reaction tomajordisease &pestRecommendedfor zones26 JGK 1 JNKVV, Jabalpur 2003 19-21 Res. to wilt CZ27 MNK-1 ARS, Gulberga 2010 12-14 ,, SZ28 PKVKabuli4PDKV, Akola 2010 19-20 ,, M.P29 GujaratJunagarhGran 3JAU, Junagarh 1010 14-15 ,, Gujarat30 Pant KabuliChana 1GBPUA&T,Pantnagar2010 23-25 ,, Uttarakhand31 WCG 2 SVBPUA&T,Meerut1999 21-23 ,, U.PDepartment of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 41. Production constraintsShrinkage of area due to increase in number of canals and othersources of irrigation and diversification of chickpea area under othercrops.Area became unfit for pulse cultivation due to excess moisture aroundcanals and increase in salt level. Large area under rainfed cultivation (75%). Biotic and abiotic stresses (up to 30% losses).Poor response to high input conditions and better management. Moisture stress at terminal growth stage. Fluctuating high temperature at reproductive phase.Crop damage due to blue bull.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 42. ConclusionChickpea(Cicer arietinum L.; 2n=14 or 16) grains provide about 23% protein, 4-10% fat & 52-70% carbohydrate and traditionally consumed after processing intovarious products.Chickpea by goodness of its resilience under rainfed conditons has a greater role toplay in coming years, as even with best efforts, successful cultivation in sizeablearea will remain dependent on monsoon besides steady & consistent decline in wateravailability for agriculture operations due to higher allocation of water to otheractivities such as industries & drinking purposes. Through breeding methods & selection procedure, it is possible to develop newcultivars for chickpea growing areas.Selection has played very important role in the development of high yieldingvarieties of chickpea from local varieties / wild species.Bulk method, pedigree method & single seed descent have been employed in thehandling of segregating generations for the development of high yielding varieties.Varieties viz. JG 315, DCP92-3, Chaffa, Dahod Yellow, BDN 9-3, KWR 108,GNG 146 are developed through selection & T2, T1, T3, T5,Radhey by pedigreemethod and mutant variety is Mutant G 130,BG 1003, BG 408, BG413, BG417.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 43. Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad--224229Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229
  • 44. Reference cited: Aiyer Narayan yenga; A.K. (1982). Field crops of India.8thedition. BAPPCO Publications. Balasubramaniyan; P. and Palaniappan; S.P. (2000). Principles and Practices of Agronomy. II ndedition . Agrobios (India). Chaturvedi; S.K. and Dua; R.P. (2001). Improved Varieties of Chickpea in Kanpur. IIPR.Kanpur. Gowda; C.L.L. and Gour ; P.M. (2003). Global scenario of chickpea research-present status andfuture thrust. Pulses in new perspective. Gupta; S.K. (2005).Practical Plant Breeding. IIndedition. Agrobios (India). Singh; D.P. (1991). Genetics and Breeding of Pulse Crops. II ndedition. Kalyany Publishers India. Singh; F; and Diwakar; B; (1995). Chickpea Botany and Production Practices . Skill DevelopmentSeries no. 16 , ICRISAT. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/chhabra61-532434-flower-s.Department of Genetics & Plant BreedingNarendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229