Charotar Institute of Technology Charotar University Of Science & Technology
 
 
<ul><li>Demand for automobiles is rising worldwide . </li></ul><ul><li>So is concern about greenhouse gas emissions. In re...
<ul><li>Fortunately, efficiency can be raised in a number of ways, notably, better control over the air-fuel mixture enter...
<ul><li>The most efficient gasoline spark ignition engines in mass-produced automobiles today convert only 20 to 25 percen...
<ul><li>Despite the IC engine’s reputation as old </li></ul><ul><li>and outmoded technology, however,  </li></ul><ul><li>i...
<ul><li>Today’s vehicles convert up </li></ul><ul><li>to 25 percent of gasoline’s </li></ul><ul><li>chemical energy into w...
<ul><li>For competitive reasons, automobile manufacturers do not typically reveal their own estimates of a future technolo...
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Hybrid cars save fuel in part by turning off the engine when the vehicle is stopped, coasting or braking; batterie...
 
 
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Piston

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Piston

  1. 1. Charotar Institute of Technology Charotar University Of Science & Technology
  2. 4. <ul><li>Demand for automobiles is rising worldwide . </li></ul><ul><li>So is concern about greenhouse gas emissions. In response, scientists and engineers are working diligently to perfect new power plants for future vehicles, including battery and hydrogen fuel-cell electric cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Although these and other alternatives show great promise for the long term, perhaps the single greatest way to reduce fossil-fuel consumption in the near term is to further improve today’s dominant transportation power plant: the gasoline internal-combustion (IC) engine. </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Fortunately, efficiency can be raised in a number of ways, notably, better control over the air-fuel mixture entering the combustion chamber, over the way gasoline is ignited there, and over the mechanical systems that harness that energy. </li></ul><ul><li>These can improve traditional automobiles as well as gasoline-electric hybrid models. </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>The most efficient gasoline spark ignition engines in mass-produced automobiles today convert only 20 to 25 percent of the fuel’s chemical energy into work. A modern diesel or gasoline-electric hybrid power train can reach 25 to 35 percent, but at substantially higher cost. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, hydrogen fuel-cell electric cars— </li></ul><ul><li>such as Honda’s FCX Clarity, now in limited </li></ul><ul><li>production—convert about 60 percent of the energy </li></ul><ul><li>in gaseous hydrogen into motive power. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Despite the IC engine’s reputation as old </li></ul><ul><li>and outmoded technology, however, </li></ul><ul><li>it continues to improve…… </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Today’s vehicles convert up </li></ul><ul><li>to 25 percent of gasoline’s </li></ul><ul><li>chemical energy into work </li></ul><ul><li>( purple and yellow ). The rest </li></ul><ul><li>is lost. But technologies can </li></ul><ul><li>reduce the waste ( table). </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>For competitive reasons, automobile manufacturers do not typically reveal their own estimates of a future technology’s potential costs and benefits. </li></ul>
  8. 16. <ul><li>Hybrid cars save fuel in part by turning off the engine when the vehicle is stopped, coasting or braking; batteries alone provide power. </li></ul><ul><li>A purely gasoline engine could do the same. </li></ul><ul><li>It would need a powerful starter that instantly turns the engine back on under any condition, which would likely require a 42-volt electrical system and battery, more robust than the 12-volt systems in vehicles today. </li></ul><ul><li>A start-stop feature could raise fuel economy by up to 7.5 percent </li></ul>

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