Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16Bessemer Process A cheep Homesteaders and Homestead Actand efficient process for making Several US laws that gave ansteel, developed 1855 by british applicant ownership of land, typicallymanufacturer Henry Bessemer called a “homestead” at little or no cost.and American ironmaker William A homesteader had to be the head ofKelly. The technenique involved the household and 21 years old. Theyinjecting air into molten iron to must have built a home, and farmed forrempver the carbon and other 5 years.impurities 1855 1857 1862 Fredrick Law Olmsted Landscape architect who helped draw up a plan for “Greensward” which was selected to become Central Park in NYC
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.11352/ Buffalo Soldiers members of the U.S 10th Cavalry Regiment of the U.S Army formed September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First peace time all-black http://electronicvalley.org/derby/q regiments. uiz/2006/gompersquiz.htm 1866 Samual Gompers Led Cigar Makers’ International Union to join with other craft Unions. American Federation of Labor focused on collective bargaining to reach agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions.
Tammany Hall New York City’s powerful Democratic political machine headed by Boss Tweed 1867 1868Oliver Kelly and GrangeKelly started the Patrons of Tweed RingHusbandry that became Corrupt organizationpopularly known at Grange. that Boss Tweed ranGrange was to provide asocial outlet and aneducational forum forisolated farm families.
Kickback Jacob Riis At 21 he left his overpayment of native Denmark for the U.S. He government money found work as a police reporter that was which exposed him to NYC’s :kickbacked” to slums where he was shocked at government the conditions in the officials. overcrowded, airless, filthy tenements. He expressed these hardships through writing. 1870John D. Rockefeller Established the standardoil company and used a trust to gain total control ofthe oil industry in America. In the 1880’s, he was incontrol of over 90% of the oil refining business inOhio. He gave away over $500 million, establishingthe Rockefeller Foundation, providing funds tofound the University of Chicago, and creating amedical institute that helped find a cure for yellowfever. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/photos/q uestion3.html
George Westinghouse Entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and pioneer of the Electrical industry. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Patented the Air brake on October 28, 1873 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica /whomade/westinghouse_hi.html 1873 1876 George Armstrong Custer and The Battle of Little Big Horn Custer reported in 1874 that the Black Hills had lots of gold. In June 1876,Colonel Custer and his troops reached the Little Big Horn River where they met Native Americans. The Indians crushed Custer’s troops killing all of them within an hour. The Native Americans were led by Crazy Horse, Gall, and Sitting bull.http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexp This battle also became known aserience/films/custer/ Custer’s Last Stand.
Thomas Alva Edison Thomas Alva Edison Established the world’s first Established the world’s firstresearch laboratory in Menlo research laboratory in MenloPark, New Jersey. He perfected Park, New Jersey. He perfectedthe incandescent light-bulb the incandescent light-bulbpatented in 1880 and invented patented in 1880 and inventedan entire system for producing an entire system for producingand distributing electrical power. and distributing electrical power. http://www.worthview.com/thomas-edison- inspirational-quotes/ 1876 Alexander Graham Bell and Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone Bell invented the Telephone Bell invented the telephone along with the telephone along with Thomas Watson in 1876. The Thomas Watson in 1876. The telephone opened the way for a telephone opened the way for a worldwide communication worldwide communication network. It also created new network. It also created new jobs for women. jobs for women. http://iwritearticle.com/
Nez Perce Native American Nez Perce Native American Chief Joseph Succeeded his Chief Joseph Succeeded his people who live in the Pacific people who live in the Pacific father as the leader of the father as the leader of the Northwest region of the US. In Northwest region of the US. In Wallowa band of the Nez Perce Wallowa band of the Nez Perce 1877 they were ordered to a 1877 they were ordered to a when the US government when the US government reservation and refused to go. reservation and refused to go. forcibly removed them from forcibly removed them from They fled to Canada and fought They fled to Canada and fought their land in Wallowa Valley to a their land in Wallowa Valley to a U.S Army along the way. After 5 U.S Army along the way. After 5 reservation in Idaho. . . reservation in Idaho. days of fighting, 431 Nez Perce days of fighting, 431 Nez Perce remained after being defeated.. remained after being defeated.. 1877 Gilded Age The period following the Civil Gilded Age The period following the Civil War, running from the late 1860’s to about War, running from the late 1860’s to aboutVanderbilt Family American Vanderbilt Family American 1896. a time of enormous growth, railroads 1896. a time of enormous growth, railroadsfamily of railroad who became family of railroad who became being the major industry. The North and being the major industry. The North andsocially prominent during the socially prominent during the West thrived while the South remained West thrived while the South remainedfirst half of the 19ththcentury. first half of the 19 century. economically devastated. African Americans economically devastated. African AmericansTheir fortune was established Their fortune was established were stripped of many rights. Dominate were stripped of many rights. Dominateby the Shipping and Railroad by the Shipping and Railroad issues included rights for black, tariff policy issues included rights for black, tariff policyindustry. The Vanderbilt’s where industry. The Vanderbilt’s where and monetary policy. Reformers works for and monetary policy. Reformers works forthe 7ththwealthiest family in the 7 wealthiest family in various causes. . . various causes.history. . . history.
Wild Bill Hickok Wild Bill HickokServed as a scout Served as a scoutand a spy during the and a spy during theCivil War and Later Civil War and Lateras a marshal in as a marshal inAbilene, Kansas. Abilene, Kansas. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booker_T._ Washington 1879 1880 1881 Booker T Washington a Booker T Washington a prominent African American prominent African American Sweat Shop Negatively Sweat Shop Negatively educator who believed that educator who believed that connotative term for any connotative term for any racism would end once blacks racism would end once blacks working environment working environment acquired useful labor skills and acquired useful labor skills and considered to be unacceptably considered to be unacceptably proved the economic value to proved the economic value to difficult or dangerous. difficult or dangerous. society. He headed the society. He headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama. Institute in Alabama.
Joseph Pulitzer A Hungarian Joseph Pulitzer A Hungarianimmigrant who had bought the immigrant who had bought theNew York World in 1883 and New York World in 1883 andpioneered popular innovations. pioneered popular innovations.These included a large Sunday These included a large Sundayedition, comics, sports coverage, edition, comics, sports coverage,and women’s news. and women’s news. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Pulitzer 1883 Pendleton Civil Service Act Pendleton Civil Service Act A law enacted in 1883 that A law enacted in 1883 that established a bipartisan civil established a bipartisan civil service commission to make service commission to make appointments to government appointments to government jobs by means of the merit jobs by means of the merit system based on candidates’ system based on candidates’ performance on an examination. performance on an examination.
Mugwumps Republican Mugwumps Republican political activist who bolted form political activist who bolted form the Republican Party by the Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the U.S Grover Cleveland in the U.S They switched because they They switched because they rejected the financial corruption rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican associated with Republican candidate James G. Blain. candidate James G. Blain. 1884 1885 Mark Twain Novelist and Mark Twain Novelist and humorist who inspired a host of humorist who inspired a host of other young artist when he other young artist when he declared his independence of declared his independence of “literature and all that bosh”. His “literature and all that bosh”. His novels became classics. novels became classics. February 1885 his novel the February 1885 his novel thehttp://meganw1213.edublogs.org/2013/02/ Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Adventures of Huckleberry Finn25/theme-from-the-adventures-of- was published. was published.huckleberry-finn/
Haymarket Affair On May 4thth, Haymarket Affair On May 4 , 1886, 3,000 people gathered at 1886, 3,000 people gathered at Chicago’s Haymarket square to Chicago’s Haymarket square to protest police. Someone tossed protest police. Someone tossed a bomb in the police line. 7 Scabs Derogatory Scabs Derogatory a bomb in the police line. 7 police and several workers died. name used to describe name used to describe police and several workers died. 3 speakers and 5 radical people who would cross people who would cross 3 speakers and 5 radical republicans were charged with the picket-line and end the the picket-line and end the republicans were charged with inciting riot, all 8 convicted. 4 strike. strike. inciting riot, all 8 convicted. 4 were hung and 1 committed were hung and 1 committed suicide in prison. suicide in prison. 1886 Settlement House A Settlement House A community center providing community center providing assistance to residents, assistance to residents, particularly immigrants, in a slum particularly immigrants, in a slum neighborhood. Run largely by neighborhood. Run largely by middle class, college- educated middle class, college- educated women. These houses provided women. These houses provided educational, cultural, and social educational, cultural, and socialhttp://www.scribe.org/events/streetmovies! services. Founded by Charles services. Founded by Charlesundercover Stover and Stanton Ciot in NYC. Stover and Stanton Ciot in NYC.
George Eastman George Eastman Dawes Act A law Dawes Act A law Developed a series of more Developed a series of more that was intended to that was intended to convenient alternatives to convenient alternatives to “Americanize” Native “Americanize” Native heavy glass plates previously heavy glass plates previously Americans by Americans by used in photography. used in photography. distributing reservation distributing reservation Photographers could use Photographers could use land individual Native land individual Native flexible film and send ititto a flexible film and send to a American owners. American owners. studio for processing. He studio for processing. He introduced the Kodak Camera. introduced the Kodak Camera. 1887 1888 1889Interstate Commerce Interstate CommerceCommission Regulatory body Commission Regulatory bodyin the U.S. created by the in the U.S. created by theinterstate commerce act of 1887. Jane Adams An influential Jane Adams An influential interstate commerce act of 1887.Original purpose was to regulate member of the Social Gospel member of the Social Gospel Original purpose was to regulaterailroads to ensure fair rates, movement who founded movement who founded railroads to ensure fair rates,eliminate race discrimination and Chicago’s Hull House in 1889. Chicago’s Hull House in 1889. eliminate race discrimination andregulate other aspects of regulate other aspects ofcommon carriers. common carriers.
Wounded Knee On Dec. 28 Wounded Knee On Dec. 28 Sherman Antitrust act and Sherman Antitrust act and the 7ththcavalry rounded up 350 the 7 cavalry rounded up 350 Monopoly A law enacted that Monopoly A law enacted that starving and freezing Sioux and starving and freezing Sioux and was intended to prevent the was intended to prevent the took them to camp at Wounded took them to camp at Wounded creation of monopolies, creation of monopolies, Knee Creek at South Dakota. Knee Creek at South Dakota. complete control over it’s complete control over it’s Next day, Native Americans Next day, Native Americans industry’s production, wages, industry’s production, wages, were forced to hand over were forced to hand over and prices, by making ititillegal to and prices, by making illegal to weapons. Shot was fired. The 7thth weapons. Shot was fired. The 7 establish trusts that interfered establish trusts that interfered cavalry slaughtered 300 mostly cavalry slaughtered 300 mostly with free trade. with free trade. unarmed Native Americans. unarmed Native Americans. 1890Literacy Tests Voting Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws Literacy Tests Votingrestrictions imposed in the Laws enacted by Laws enacted by restrictions imposed in theSouthern States to limit Southern States and Southern States and Southern States to limitblacks’ votes. The test for local governments to local governments to blacks’ votes. The test forblacks were very hard and separate white and separate white and blacks were very hard andsometimes in different black people in public black people in public sometimes in differentlanguages. Officials could and private facilities. and private facilities. languages. Officials couldpass or fail applicants as they pass or fail applicants as theywished. wished.
Collective Bargaining A Collective Bargaining Aprocess of negotiations process of negotiationsbetween employers and a between employers and agroup of employees aimed at group of employees aimed atreaching agreements that reaching agreements thatregulate working conditions. regulate working conditions. http://www.muthstruths.com/2011/08/2 5/collective-bargains-should-be-ratified- collectively/ 1891 Populist A supporter of Populist A supporter of populism, a political populism, a political philosophy urging social and philosophy urging social and political systems change that political systems change that favors “the people” over “the favors “the people” over “the Elites”. Short lived political Elites”. Short lived political party in the U.S established in party in the U.S established in 1891. 1891.
Omaha Platform Party program Omaha Platform Party programadopted at the convention of the adopted at the convention of the Ida B. Wells Born into slavery Ida B. Wells Born into slaveryPopulist Party held in Omaha, Populist Party held in Omaha, shortly before emancipation, she shortly before emancipation, sheNebraska on July 4thth.Preamble was Nebraska on July 4 . Preamble was moved Memphis in the early moved Memphis in the earlywritten by Ignatius L. Donnelly. The written by Ignatius L. Donnelly. The 1880’s to work as a teacher. She 1880’s to work as a teacher. Sheplanks represented the Farmers’ planks represented the Farmers’ later became editor of a local later became editor of a localAlliance concerns. Free-currency Alliance concerns. Free-currency paper. The events of march 9thth paper. The events of march 9monetarism, and endorsing the goals monetarism, and endorsing the goals when 3 young blacks were when 3 young blacks wereof the Urban Knights of Labor. of the Urban Knights of Labor. lynched she ended up reporting lynched she ended up reporting about it. about it. 1892 Ellis Island Immigrants had to Ellis Island Immigrants had to pass inspections at immigration pass inspections at immigration stations. About 20% of the stations. About 20% of the immigrants at Ellis Island were immigrants at Ellis Island were detained for at least a day before detained for at least a day before being inspected but only about being inspected but only about 2% were denied entry. The had 2% were denied entry. The had medical examinations, medical examinations, government inspections. About government inspections. About http://www.philly.com/philly/blogs/flowerssh 17 million passed through. 17 million passed through. ow/166461496.html
George Pullman and the Pullman Strike Inventor and George Pullman and the Pullman Strike Inventor and industrialist who invented the Pullman sleeping car and industrialist who invented the Pullman sleeping car and “Palace cars”. Biggest single employer of Blacks in post civil “Palace cars”. Biggest single employer of Blacks in post civil war America. He owned a plant near Chicago. When business war America. He owned a plant near Chicago. When business fell in 1894, Pullman cut jobs and wages and increased fell in 1894, Pullman cut jobs and wages and increased working hours in order to lower costs and keep profits, but not working hours in order to lower costs and keep profits, but not rents or prices in his town. His workers launched a strike rents or prices in his town. His workers launched a strike which was eventually broken up by federal troops. which was eventually broken up by federal troops. 1894Andrew Carnegie Born in Andrew Carnegie Born inScotland to poor parents, moved to Scotland to poor parents, moved to Eugene VS. Debs attempted Eugene VS. Debs attemptedAmerica at age of 12. Six years America at age of 12. Six years to form an industrial union- to form an industrial union-later he worked his way up to later he worked his way up to American Railway Union. Union American Railway Union. Unionbecoming a private secretary to the becoming a private secretary to the members were mostly unskilled members were mostly unskilledlocal superintendent of local superintendent of and semiskilled laborers, but and semiskilled laborers, butPennsylvania Railroad. Entered the Pennsylvania Railroad. Entered the engineers and firemen joined engineers and firemen joinedsteel business in 1873 and founded steel business in 1873 and founded too. 1894, the new union won a too. 1894, the new union won aa successful Carnegie Steel a successful Carnegie Steel strike for higher wages. strike for higher wages.Factory. Donated 90% of his Factory. Donated 90% of his Membership grew to 150,000 Membership grew to 150,000wealth. wealth.
Grandfather Clause Southern Grandfather Clause Southern starts added the grandfather clause starts added the grandfather clause to their constitution. It started that to their constitution. It started that even ififa man failed the literacy test even a man failed the literacy test or could not afford the poll tax, he or could not afford the poll tax, he was still entitled to vote ififhe, his was still entitled to vote he, his father, or his grandfather had been father, or his grandfather had been eligible to vote before Jan. 1stst,1867. eligible to vote before Jan. 1 , 1867. Before that date, freed slaves did Before that date, freed slaves did not have the right to vote. not have the right to vote. 1895William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst W.E.B Dubois The first African W.E.B Dubois The first AfricanPurchased the New York Purchased the New York American to receive a doctorate American to receive a doctorateMorning Journal in 1895, also Morning Journal in 1895, also from Harvard in 1895 who strongly from Harvard in 1895 who stronglyowned the San Francisco owned the San Francisco disagreed with Washington’s disagreed with Washington’sExaminer. He tried to out do his Examiner. He tried to out do his gradual approach to end racism. In gradual approach to end racism. Incompetitor Pulitzer by filling the competitor Pulitzer by filling the 1905,he founded the Niagara 1905,he founded the NiagaraJournal with exaggerated tales Journal with exaggerated tales Movement which insisted that Movement which insisted thatof personal scandals, cruelty, of personal scandals, cruelty, blacks should seek a liberal arts blacks should seek a liberal artshypnotism, and imaginary hypnotism, and imaginary education so that the black education so that the blackconquest of Mars. conquest of Mars. community would have well community would have well educated leaders. educated leaders.
William Jennings Bryan William Jennings BryanWilliam McKinley In the 1896 William McKinley In the 1896 Former Nebraska Congressmen Former Nebraska Congressmenpresidential campaign, the presidential campaign, the and editor of the Omaha World and editor of the Omaha Worldrepublican party stated its fir, republican party stated its fir, Herald. He delivered the “Cross Herald. He delivered the “Crosscommitment to the gold standard commitment to the gold standard of Gold” speech at the of Gold” speech at theand nominated McKinley from and nominated McKinley from Democratic convention in 1896 Democratic convention in 1896Ohio. He got about 7 million Ohio. He got about 7 million and won the Democratic and won the Democraticvotes and carried the East. Won votes and carried the East. Won nomination. He faced a difficult nomination. He faced a difficultthe Election. the Election. campaign due to the lack of campaign due to the lack of support and funds. support and funds. 1896 Plessy VS. Ferguson The Plessy VS. Ferguson The supreme court ruled that the supreme court ruled that the separation of races in a public separation of races in a public place was legal and did not place was legal and did not violate the 14ththAmendment. violate the 14 Amendment. “Separate-but-equal” did not “Separate-but-equal” did not violate the Constitution. violate the Constitution.
Angle Island Immigrants from Angle Island Immigrants from Asia-primarily China- arrived on Asia-primarily China- arrived on the West Coast and gained the West Coast and gained Debt Peonage A Debt Peonage A admission at Angle Island in San admission at Angle Island in San system in which workers system in which workers Francisco bay. Between 1910 Francisco bay. Between 1910 are bound in servitude are bound in servitude and 1940, about 20,000 Chinese and 1940, about 20,000 Chinese until their debt are paid until their debt are paid immigrants entered the United immigrants entered the United to the employer. to the employer. States through Angle Island. States through Angle Island. Procedures were similar to those Procedures were similar to those at Ellis Island. at Ellis Island. 1902 1903 1910Orville and Wilbur Wright In Orville and Wilbur Wright Inthe early 20th century, brothers the early 20th century, brothersOrville and Wilbur bicycle Orville and Wilbur bicyclemanufactures from Daton, Ohio manufactures from Daton, Ohioworked on planes. First they built worked on planes. First they builta glider, then a 4 cylinder internal a glider, then a 4 cylinder internalcombustion engine. Their first combustion engine. Their firstsuccessful flight was on Dec. 17th successful flight was on Dec. 17th1903 at Kitty Hawk, NC. It covered 1903 at Kitty Hawk, NC. It covered http://gimnasio-120 feet and lasted 12 seconds. 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds. altair.com/webquest/flight/introduction.html
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