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Eva’s grammar book



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  • 1. Eva’s Grammar BookSeñora Linares6th period
  • 2. Table of Contents1. Qué vs. Cuál2. Ser3. Estar4. Gustar5. Palabras Transicionales6. El imperfecto7. Irregulars8. Triggers9. Acabar de + infinitive10. Formulas11. Verbos Como Gustar12. Reflexive13. Tú Commands (affirmative, irregular, and negative)14. DOP + Placement15. Preterite
  • 3. Qué Cuál Used when asking for  Usually used before es definitions and other ser forms Most often used before when not seeking a nouns definition Same singular and plural  Used to suggest a forms selection or choice from a group  Singular = cuál  Plural = cuáles Qué vs. Cuál
  • 4. SER = to be Yo soy  D: descriptions Tú eres  O: origin Él es  C: characterisitcs Ella es  T: time Usted es  O: occupation Nosotros(as)  R: relationships somos  P: possession Vosotros(as) sois  E: events Ellos son  D: dates Ellas son Ustedes son
  • 5. Estar = to be Estoy – I am • Health H • ¿Como estás? Estás – you are Está – he/she/ • Emotions you(formal) are E • ¿Como estás? Estamos – we are • Location Estáis – ya’ll are ( L • ¿Donde estás? in Spain only) • Present Condition Están – they/ ya’ll P • ¿Como está? are • ¿Que estás haciendo? ING • Ar- ando • Er/ir – iendo or yendo
  • 6. Gustar = to like (A mi) me gusta(n)  Examples: (A ti) te gusta(n) ◦ Me gusta el (A usted) le gusta(n) boligrafo. (A él) le gusta(n) (A ella) le gusta(n) ◦ Me gusta hablar (A Juan) le gusta español. (A nosotros) nos ◦ Me gustan los gusta(n) boligrafos. (A vosotros) os gusta(n) (A ustedes) les gusta(n) (A ellos) les gusta(n) (A ellas) les gusta(n)
  • 7. Palabras Transicionales También = also Ahora = now Primero = first Ni-ni = neither-nor Después = after Antés = before Por eso = therefore Así que = so Y = and Entonces = then
  • 8. El Imperfecto Imperfect action in the past. Uses: ◦ Ongoing action (was/were) ◦ Repeated action (used to) ◦ No definite beginning or end ◦ Time/date/age/feelings/descriptions ◦ Interrupted activity (cuando)
  • 9. Imperfect Continued (Including irregulars) Ir Ser Ver• Yo iba • Yo era • Yo veía• Tú ibas • Tú eras • Tú veías• Él/ella/usted iba • Él/ella/usted era • Él/ella/usted veía• Nosotros íbamos • Nosotros éramos • Nosotros veíamos• Vosotros ibais • Vosotros erais • Vosotros veíais• Ellos/ellas.ustedes • Ellos/ellas/ustedes • Ellos/ellas/ustedes iban eran veían Hablar Comer Escribir• Yo hablaba • Yo comía • Yo escribía• Tú hablabas • Tú comías • Tú escribías• Él/ella/usted hablaba • Él/ella/usted comía • Él/ella/usted escribía• Nosotros hablábamos • Nosotros comíamos • Nosotros escribíamos• Vosotros hablabais • Vosotros comíais • Vosotros escribíais• Ellos/ellas/ustedes • Ellos/ellas/ustedes • Ellos/ellas/ustedes hablaban comían escribían
  • 10. Triggers Todos los días = every day A menudo = often A veces = sometimes Siempre = always Cada día = daily Los lunes = on Monday Generalmente = generally Mientras = as De vez en cuando= every once in awhile Muchas veces = very often Frecuentemente = frequently Usualmente = usually
  • 11. Acabar de + infinitive Means to have just finished Acabo de comer unas papas fritas y me duele el estómago = I just ate some french fries and my stomach hurts. Conjugations ◦ Yo acabo de ◦ Tú acabas de ◦ Él/ella/usted acaba de ◦ Nosotros/as acabamos de ◦ Ellos/ellas/ustedes acaban de
  • 12. Formulas hace + time + que + conjugated verb: This formula is used to talk about how much time you’ve been doing something. Example: Hace trients y cinco minutos que Paula espera el autobús. hay + que + infinitive : This formula is used to talk about what needs to be done. It’s very impersonal and directed to no one in particular. Example: Hay que estudiar para sacar buenas notas. se prohibe + infinitive: This formula tells what is prohibited. Used often in public places. Example: Se prohibe fumar = no smoking. se permite + infinitive: This formula tells what is permitted. Ir + a + infinitive: This formula tells what someone is going to do. Example: Roberto va a hablar por teléfono con Lisette.
  • 13. Verbos Como Gustar • GustaMe • Gustan • FaltaTe • Faltan • DueleLe • Duelen • FascinaNos • Fascinan • MolestaLes • Molestan
  • 14. Reflexive The person/thing doing = the person/thing receiving 1) Pick pronoun. 2) conjugate verb. 3) put pronoun in front. Example: He is going to see himself = se va a ver / va a verse. Reflexive pronoun can only be placed on the end of infinitives, present participles, and positive commands. Reflect to one’s self.
  • 15. Tú Commands Affirmative: put the verb in the “tú” form and drop the “s”. Negative: put the verb into it’s regular 1st person form, then put it into it’s opposite 3rd person form( are / er/ir a) Example: Don’t eat it! = ¡No lo comas! Irregulars: Decir Hacer Ir Poner Salir Ser Tener Venir • Di • Haz • Ve • Pon • Sal • Sé • Ten • Ven
  • 16. DOP + Placement Takes the place of a noun. When you change the syllabification of a verb an accent mark is added to the 3rd to the last syllable. It answers the question of what is being received by the verb. DOP can only attach in 3 ways: Pronoun can be placed either in front or behind Present the verb. Infinitive - Command - Progressive comerio ¡comelo! – Él está comiéndolo
  • 17. Preterite Past actions that are seen as completed. -ER/IR -AR é í aste iste ó ió amos imos aron ieron