Any information, whether oral or recorded in any form or medium, that: is created or received by a health care provider, health plan, public health authority, employer, life insurer, school or university, or health care clearinghouse; and relates to the past, present, or future physical or mental illnesses.
A service or publication designed to alert scholars, researcher s, reader s, customers, or employees to recently published literature in their field (s) of specialization , usually available in special libraries serving companies, organizations, and institutions in which access to current information is essential.
Such services can be tailored to fit the interest profile of a specific individual or group. Some online catalog s and bibliographic database s include a "preferred searches" option that allows the library user to archive search statement s and re-execute them as needed. Synonymous with selective dissemination of information
An alphabetical ly arranged list of heading s consisting of the personal name s, places, and subject s treated in a written work , with page number s to refer the reader to the point in the text at which information pertaining to the heading is found.
A brief, objective representation of the essential content of a book , article , speech , report , dissertation , patent , standard , or other work , presenting the main points in the same order as the original but having no independent literary value. A well-prepared abstract enables the reader to 1) quickly identify the basic content of the document , 2) determine its relevance to their interests, and 3) decide whether it is worth their time to read the entire document.
Strictly speaking, a systematic list or enumeration of written work s by a specific author or on a given subject , or that share one or more common characteristics ( language , form, period, place of publication , etc.).
A bibliography may be comprehensive or selective . Long bibliographies may be published serial ly or in book form.
A bibliography in which a brief explanatory or evaluative note is added to each reference or citation . An annotation can be helpful to the research er in evaluating whether the source is relevant to a given topic or line of inquiry.
A Periodical that reproduces the tables of contents of the leading Scholarly Journals in an academic discipline or field to assist researcher s in keeping abreast of the most recently published literature in their areas of interest or specialization , usually published weekly or monthly . Because currency is the raison d'être of this type of publication , libraries may limit back file s to the most recent three to five years
A three-part index in which work s cite d during a given year are listed alphabetical ly by name of author cite d, followed by the names of the citing authors ( source s) in a "Citation Index." Full bibliographic information for the citing author is given in a "Source Index." Also provided is a "Subject Index," usually listing article s by significant words in the title .
A cumulative list of periodical article s in which the citation s are entered by subject (or in classified arrangement) and sometimes under the author 's last name, separately or in a single alphabetic sequence. Periodical indexes may be general ( e.g. : Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature ), devoted to a specific academic discipline ( Education Index ) or group of disciplines ( Humanities Index ), or limited to a particular type of publication ( Alternative Press Index ). In libraries , periodical indexes are available in print and as bibliographic database s, online or on CD-ROM . Compare with abstracting service
A comprehensive list of the book s, periodical s, map s, and other materials in a given collection , arranged in systematic order to facilitate retrieval (usually alphabetical ly by author , title , and/or subject ). In most modern libraries , the card catalog has been converted to machine-readable bibliographic record s and is available online
A list of people, companies, institutions, organizations, etc., in alphabetical or classified order, providing contact information (names, addresses, phone/ fax numbers, etc.) and other pertinent details (affiliations, conference s, publication s, membership, etc.) in brief format , often published serial ly ( e.g. : American Library Directory ). In most libraries , current directories are shelved in ready reference or in the reference stacks
A serial publication with its own distinctive title , containing a mix of article s, editorial s, review s, column s, short stories , poem s, or other short work s written by more than one contributor , issued in softcover more than once, generally at regular stated intervals of less than a year, without prior decision as to when the final issue will appear. Although each issue is complete in itself, its relationship to preceding issues is indicated by enumeration , usually issue number and volume number printed on the front cover . Content is controlled by an editor or editorial board .
A periodical devoted to disseminating original research and commentary on current developments in a specific discipline , subdiscipline, or field of study ( example : Journal of Clinical Epidemiology ), usually published in quarterly , bimonthly , or monthly issue s sold by subscription . Journal article s are usually written by the person (or persons) who conducted the research. Longer than most magazine articles, they almost always include a bibliography or list of work s cited at the end.
Magazines Magazines or popular periodicals are directed to the general public . They usually include more pictures, eye-catching headlines, advertisements and “entertainment articles” than journals. There exist magazines that can be useful for research purposes, but most of them are not the best sources for research . You can use magazines to find information or opinions about popular culture and current events, and for overviews written in easily understandable language
Most of the research carried out by students working for higher degrees is published in the form of a thesis or dissertation. These dissertations are examined and assessed by one or more external examiners. Theses are valuable sources of information partly because they contain detailed information about the research carried out , and also because they usually contain a "state-of-the-art" review often as the introduction. In connection with the review theses usually contain a comprehensive list of references.
A single- volume or multivolume reference work containing brief explanatory entries for term s and topic s related to a specific subject or field of inquiry, usually arranged alphabetical ly
( e.g. : Dictionary of Neuropsychology ). The entries in a dictionary are usually shorter than those contained in an Encyclopedia on the same subject, but the word "dictionary" is often used in the title s of works that should more appropriately be called encyclopedias ( e.g. : Dictionary of the Middle Ages in 13 volume s)
A book or numbered set of books containing authoritative summary information about a variety of topic s in the form of short essay s, usually arranged alphabetical ly by headword or classified in some manner. An entry may be signed or unsigned , with or without illustration or a list of references for further reading . Headwords and text are usually revised periodically for publication in a new edition . In a multivolume encyclopedia, any index es are usually located at the end of the last volume . Encyclopedias may be general ( example : Encyclopedia Americana ) or specialized , usually by subject ( Encyclopedia of Bad Taste ) or discipline ( Encyclopedia of Social Work ).