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Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
Inheritance
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Inheritance

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  • 1. Inheritance
  • 2. Chromosomes <ul><li>Chromosomes are thread like structures found in the cell nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Human cells have 46 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>The gametes (sperm & egg) have only 23 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>The 46 chromosomes in the body cells are copies of the 23 from mother’s egg and the 23 from the father’s sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins (histones) </li></ul>
  • 3.  
  • 4. <ul><li>Chromosomes occur in pairs inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>In each pair, one chromosome comes from the male parent, the other from the female. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why people look similar to their parents but not exactly like either of them </li></ul>Human Chromosomes
  • 5. Sex Chromosomes <ul><li>The gender of an organism is determined by its sex chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>In most species there are two types of sex chromosomes, X and Y </li></ul><ul><li>Females have two X chromosomes in each of their body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Males have an X and a Y chromosome in each cell </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>All eggs contain a single X chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the sperms from a male contain Y chromosome and the other half contain X chromosome </li></ul>
  • 7. DNA <ul><li>DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>It carries all the information a cell requires </li></ul><ul><li>DNA molecules are made up of subunits called nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Each nucleotide is made up of a nitrogen base, a phosphate group and a pentose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>The pentose sugar in DNA is deoxyribose sugar </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of nitrogen bases in DNA molecule – Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine </li></ul>
  • 8.  
  • 9. DNA <ul><li>DNA is structured like a spiral ladder (double helix) </li></ul><ul><li>The deoxyribose sugar molecules bond together to form the supports of the DNA ladder </li></ul><ul><li>The nitrogen bases in the two strands bond with each other forming rungs of the ladder </li></ul><ul><li>The nitrogen base pairing is specific. Adenine always bond with Thymine by two hydrogen bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine always bond with Cytosine by three hydrogen bonds </li></ul>
  • 10.  
  • 11. Gene <ul><li>A gene is a segment of DNA containing the instruction for the formation of one particular protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have around 30,000 genes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms”. </li></ul>

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