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Inheritance Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Inheritance
  • 2. Chromosomes
    • Chromosomes are thread like structures found in the cell nucleus
    • Human cells have 46 chromosomes
    • The gametes (sperm & egg) have only 23 chromosomes
    • The 46 chromosomes in the body cells are copies of the 23 from mother’s egg and the 23 from the father’s sperm
    • Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins (histones)
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Chromosomes occur in pairs inside the nucleus
    • In each pair, one chromosome comes from the male parent, the other from the female.
    • This is why people look similar to their parents but not exactly like either of them
    Human Chromosomes
  • 5. Sex Chromosomes
    • The gender of an organism is determined by its sex chromosomes.
    • In most species there are two types of sex chromosomes, X and Y
    • Females have two X chromosomes in each of their body cells
    • Males have an X and a Y chromosome in each cell
  • 6.
    • All eggs contain a single X chromosome
    • Half of the sperms from a male contain Y chromosome and the other half contain X chromosome
  • 7. DNA
    • DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
    • It carries all the information a cell requires
    • DNA molecules are made up of subunits called nucleotides
    • Each nucleotide is made up of a nitrogen base, a phosphate group and a pentose sugar
    • The pentose sugar in DNA is deoxyribose sugar
    • There are four types of nitrogen bases in DNA molecule – Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine
  • 8.  
  • 9. DNA
    • DNA is structured like a spiral ladder (double helix)
    • The deoxyribose sugar molecules bond together to form the supports of the DNA ladder
    • The nitrogen bases in the two strands bond with each other forming rungs of the ladder
    • The nitrogen base pairing is specific. Adenine always bond with Thymine by two hydrogen bonds
    • Guanine always bond with Cytosine by three hydrogen bonds
  • 10.  
  • 11. Gene
    • A gene is a segment of DNA containing the instruction for the formation of one particular protein.
    • Humans have around 30,000 genes.
    • “ Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms”.