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Immunity 3
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  • 1. Immunity
  • 2. Innate Immunity
    • Innate immunity (inherited immunity or hereditary resistance) is an inborn genetic gift.
  • 3. Acquired Immunity
    • Acquired immunity is gained in life.
    • It can be natural or artificial.
    • The former develops as a defense against natural infections or antigens, whereas the latter develops in response to artificially administered vaccines, allergens etc.
  • 4. Active Immunity
    • Active immunity is the resistance developed against natural or artificial antigenic stimulation.
    • The immunity developed by an organism, due to the formation of antibodies from its own cells is called active immunity.
    • Active immunity is produced by two ways,
      • By direct attack of pathogens (mumps and measles)
      • By vaccination (vaccine for polio)
    • Active immunity involves the active functioning of the immune system.
    • Active immunity can provide effective long-term protection.
  • 5. Passive Immunity
    • Passive immunity is the ready-made resistance, passively transferred to a recipient.
    • Passive immunity occurs when an individual receives antibodies instead of making their own.
    • Passive immunity is short-lived because the person’s B and T cells have not been stimulated to produce antibodies.
    • The immunity lasts only as long as the antibodies they received remain in their bloodstream.
      • Newborn babies have antibodies they received from their mother.
  • 6.  
  • 7. Vaccines
    • Vaccines are preparations of inactivated or killed microorganisms or their products.
    • The administration of vaccines to recipients is called vaccination.
    • The production of active immunity through vaccination is called active immunization.
  • 8. Vaccines
    • Vaccines do not normally cause disease, because they contain only inactivated or dead antigens.
    • At the same time they can trigger the functioning of the immune system and stimulate the production of antibodies
    • Sometimes two or more doses are required to develop sufficient immunity against some diseases.
    • In such cases the first dose is called trigger dose and the additional doses are called booster doses.