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  • Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins took two sets of eight young rats and fed both sets a diet consisting of purified casein, starch, sucrose, mineral salts, lard and water. In addiction, one set was given 3 cm3 of milk every day for the first 18 days of the experiment. Milk contains vitamins. After 18 days the milk supplement was withdrawn from the first set and given to the second set of young rats until the end of the experiment. The results demonstrate the importance of vitamins in the growth rate of young rats.


  • 1. Balanced Diet
  • 2. Nutrients
    • Nutrients are substances in food that serve one or more of the following purposes
      • Provide a source of energy
      • Provide structure
      • Regulate chemical reactions in the body
  • 3. Balanced diet
    • To stay healthy humans need
    • macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) and
    • micronutrients (mineral salts and vitamins) along with water and fibre.
  • 4. Macronutrients
    • Macronutrients form the major part of diet.
  • 5. Carbohydrates
    • Carbohydrates provide energy.
    • Carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides and used in cellular respiration to release energy.
    • Some glucose is converted to glycogen and is stored in liver, muscles and brain.
    • Any excess carbohydrate is converted to fat and stored in various parts of the body.
  • 6. Carbohydrates
    • We get carbohydrates from:
      • Bread and grains
      • Rice and pasta
      • Vegetables
      • Fruits
  • 7. Proteins
    • Foods high in protein are necessary to enable us to grow and repair muscle.
    • Proteins are found in:
      • Meat and fish
      • Beans and legumes
      • Nuts and Soya products
      • Dairy products and eggs
  • 8. Functions of Proteins
    • Form major structural material in body.
    • Act as a source of energy.
    • Allow internal communications system to function.
    • Maintain immune system.
    • Drive chemical reactions needed for life.
  • 9. Lipids
    • Fats are obtained from
      • Plant fat- Oils (sunflower, corn, soya, etc.) and margarines
      • Animal fat- Solids (butter, lard, cheese)
  • 10. Functions of Lipids
    • Provide large amounts of energy.
    • Compose the structure of cell membranes.
    • Regulate cellular processes.
    • Forms an insulating layer under the skin to keep the body warm.
  • 11. Fibre
    • Fibre is found in the form of plant material that we cannot absorb and is passed through the body.
    • It aids in intestinal digestion, binds cholesterol and passes it out of the body along with other waste products.
    • Fibre is found in:
      • Vegetables and hard fruits
      • Whole grains and seeds
      • Brown rice
      • Oats
  • 12. Water
    • The human body is 75% water.
    • In ordinary living, we lose between 2 and 3 liters a day through our urine, sweating and exhaling.
    • When exercising the body loses even more water, and is at risk of dehydration if it is not replaced.
  • 13. Functions of Water
    • Medium that transports nutrients, gases and waste products.
    • Serves as environment where chemical reactions occur.
    • Regulates body temperature.
  • 14. Vitamins
    • They do NOT provide structure or energy.
    • Functions
      • Regulate body processes.
      • Promote growth & development.
      • Protect body from damaging effects of toxic compounds.
      • Build and maintain tissues.
      • Assist in using energy from carbohydrates, protein, and lipids.
      • Assist in disease prevention and treatment.
  • 15. Classification of Vitamins
    • Water Soluble
      • Vitamin C
      • B vitamins
    • Fat Soluble
      • Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • 16.  
  • 17. Mineral Salts
    • Lack of minerals in diet can lead to a variety of serious conditions.
    • Calcium is needed for the formation of your skeleton and teeth, for muscles to contract and for blood clotting to take place.
    • Sodium is needed for nerves to work properly, for muscular contraction and to maintain heart beat.