REVERSE OSMOSISReverse osmosis (RO) is a membrane-technology filtration method thatremoves many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applyingpressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane.Reverse osmosis is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of highsolute concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region of lowsolute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmoticpressure
CURRENT APPLICATIONSREVERSE OSMOSIS IS WIDELY USED INTHE FOLLOWING FIELDS. Drinking water purification. Water and wastewater purification. Food industry. Car washing. Maple syrup production. Hydrogen production. Reef aquariums.
STAGES OF REVERSE OSMOSISDuring the initial filtration stage, tap water or well water(pressurized by a booster pump) is passed through a particle filter(a pre-filter) that removes silt, sediment, sand, and clay particlesthat might clog the R/O membrane.The water is then forced through an activated carbon filter thattraps minerals and contaminants such as chromium, mercury,copper, chloramine and pesticides. It also removes chlorine, whichis important, as chlorine will shorten the life of the membrane.Water is transferred under pressure into the R/O module,allowing only clean water to pass through the small pores in themembrane. Impurities unable to pass through the membrane areleft behind and flushed down the drain.Treated water is then sent to a storage tank.Treated water is passed through an activated carbon filter beforeuse to further improve the waters taste and smell.
TREATMENT OF WATER THROUGH REVERSE OSMOSIS Reverse osmosis (R/O) is a water treatment process in which water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane that has very small holes or "pores". Clean water passes through and impurities that are too big to pass through the membrane are left behind and flushed away.
TYPES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANTS DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT a) PACKAGED DRINKING WATER PLANT b) JAR PLANT IRON TREATMENT PLANT ARSENIC TREATMENT PLANT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT WATER SOFTNER DEMINERALISER SWIMMING POOL TREATMENT
PACKAGED DRINKING WATERPLANT • Water is a key to social equity to environmental stability and to cultural diversity. Water is also firmly linked with health. Pure and safe drinking water has always been a necessity. • The categories of bottled water in India are Packaged Natural Mineral Water and Packaged Drinking Water .Bottled water industry,colloquially called,the mineral water industry,is a symbol of new life style emerging in India. The packaged drinking water in India, which is estimated at Rs.850 crores with over 200 brands floating in the market, most of which have restricted territorial distribution.
20 L JAR PLANTWater is a key to social equity to environmental stability and tocultural diversity. Water is also firmly linked with health. Pure andsafe drinking water has always been a necessity.
IRON TREATMENT PLANTIron is an objectionable constituent of portable water.Iron in water impart a bitter characteristic, metallic taste and cause oxidizedprecipitate.Coloration of water which may be yellowish brown to reddish brown and rendersthe water objectionable or unsuitable for use.In addition Iron stain everything with which it come in contact.Iron exists in water in two levels. One as the bi-valent, Ferrous Iron ( Fe ++) andthe second one as the tri-valent, Ferric Iron (Fe+++).The Ferric Iron generally occurring in the precipitated form. Iron forms complexesof hydroxides and other in-organic complexes in solution with substantial amountsof bi-carbonate, sulphate, Phosphate, Cyanide or Halides. Presence of organicsubstances induces the formation of organic complexes which increase thesolubility of Iron.The waters of high alkalinity have lower iron than waters of low alkalinity.
ARSENIC TREATMENTPLANT Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition caused by elevated levels of the element arsenic. Symptoms of arsenic poisoning begin with headaches, confusion, severe diarrhea, and drowsiness. As the poisoning develops, convulsions and changes in fingernail pigmentation called leukonychia may occur. When the poisoning becomes acute, symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, blood in the urine, cramping muscles, hair loss, stomach pain, and more convulsions. The organs of the body that are usually affected by arsenic poisoning are the lungs, skin, kidneys, and liver. The final result of arsenic poisoning is coma to death. Arsenic is related to heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Long term exposure to arsenic is related to vitamin A deficiency which is related to heart disease and night blindness. Research has shown that the inorganic arsenites in drinking water have a much higher acute toxicity than organic arsenates .
WATER SOFTNERWater softening is the reduction of the concentration of calcium, magnesium, andcertain other metal cations in hard water. These "hardness ions" can cause a varietyof undesired effects including galvanic corrosion, interfering with the action of soaps,and the build up of limescale, which can foul plumbing.Water softening methods mainly rely on the removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from asolution or the sequestration of these ions, i.e. binding them to a molecule thatremoves their ability to form scale or interfere with soaps. Removal is achieved by ionexchange and by precipitation methods. Sequestration entails the addition of chemicalcompounds called sequestration (or chelating) agents.Since Ca2+ and Mg2+ exist as nonvolatile salts, they can be removed by distilling thewater, but distillation is too expensive in most cases (rainwater is soft because it is, ineffect, distilled).
SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTSewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewaterand household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic.It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical,chemical and biological contaminants.Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (ortreated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal orreuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possibleto re-use sewage effluent for drinking water.
DEMINERALISERWater, even if it is occurring in nature, consists of lot of minerals which isharmful for both humans and animals. The consumption of these harmfulminerals can be avoided by using demineralizer.Dissolved ionic material from water is removed by demineralization process.This process is followed to obtain pure water. Demineralization takes place inan ion exchange unit called as demineralizer or deionizer that consist ofcation bed, an anion bed and a mixed bed in series.The demineralizer plant consist of both cations and anions vessel which areplaced in series.
SWIMMING POOL TREATMENTProper water chemistry is required to keep a swimming pool safe and cleanfor swimmers, and maintaining a swimming pools chemicals can save poolowners time and money.By following some Water Treatment steps, any pool owner can maintain theirown swimming pool with the same results as the high-priced professionals.