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  • 1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Lecture No. 1 Rahman Ali Lecturer in Computer Science,Quaid-e-Azam College of Commerce, University of Peshawar rahmanac1@yahoo.com
  • 2. Agenda Intelligence Intelligence of computer Artificial intelligence Intelligent computing Vs Conventional computing Contribution of other fields to AI History of AI Applications of AI References End February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 2 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 3. Intelligence? February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 3 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 4. Can Intelligence be defined? Intelligence can not be defined abstractly There are probably as many definitions of intelligence as there are experts who study it. February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 4 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 5. Intelligence (defination) from "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994), an editorial statement by fifty-two researchers: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly (conceptually), comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.  (Gottfredson, L.S., 1997). February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 5 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 6. Intelligence from "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association:  Individualsdiffer from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.  (Neisser, 1997) and (Perloff, 1996) February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 6 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 7. Other definitions of intelligence capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude (ability) in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc. the faculty of understanding. knowledge of an event, circumstance, etc., received or imparted; news; information. the gathering or distribution of information, especially secret information  www. dictionary.com February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 7 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 8. Intelligence (summary) Intelligence is the ability of:  abstract thought  understanding  communication  reasoning  learning  planning  problem solving February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 8 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 9. Intelligence of computer According to the British computer scientist Alan Turings test in (1950):  “a computer would deserves to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human.” February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 9 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 10. Artificial Intelligence? ??? February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 10 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 11. Artificial Intelligence “A branch of a computer science which studies the development of software and hardware which simulates human intelligence”  (Dr. Ghassan Issa) February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 11 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 12. Artificial Intelligence AI is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems, that is, computer systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior-  Understanding languages,  learning,  reasoning,  solving problems, and so on.  (Barr and Feigenbaum, 1981) February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 12 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 13. Other Definitions of AI …. “AI is the study of how to make computer do things at which, at the moment, people are better”  (Rich and Knight, 1991) “AI is study of idea that enable computers to be intelligent”  (Patrick H. Winston) February 26, 2013 Natural Language Processing (NLP) by 13 Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP
  • 14. Intelligent computing Vs Conventionalcomputing   Intelligent Computing   Conventional  Computing 1 Does not guarantee a  1 Guarantees a solution to a  solution to a given problem. given problem. 2 Results may not be reliable  2 Results are consistent and  and consistent reliable. 3 Programmer does not tell  3 Programmer tells the  the system how to solve the  system exactly how to solve  given problem. the problem 4 Can solve a range of  4 Can solve only one problem  problems in a given  at a time in a given domain domain. February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 14 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 15. Intelligent computing Vs Conventionalcomputing … Conventional:  Based on algorithms whose instructions are stored in memory and executed in sequential way. AI Computing:  Not based on algorithms but based on:  Knowledge base (symbolic representation)  Uses reasoning and inferencing over the knowledge base to search and perform pattern matching. February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 15 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 16. Intelligent computing Vs Conventionalcomputing … February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 16 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 17. Contributions of other disciplines to AI Philosophy Logic, methods of reasoning, mind as physical system, foundations of learning, language, rationality (wisdom) Mathematics Formal representation and proof of algorithms, computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability, probability Economics utility, decision theory Neuroscience how do brain process information (neuron operation) Psychology 1- How do humans and animals think and act 2- phenomena of perception and motor control, experimental techniques Computer engineering building fast computers Control theory 1- How can artifacts (objects) operate under their own control? 2- design systems that maximize an objective function over time. Linguistics knowledge representation, grammar February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 17 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 18. Abridged history of artificial intelligence 1941 first electric computer was developed 1943 McCulloch & Pitts:  Boolean circuit model of brain 1949 first “stored program” computer was introduced 1950 Turing proposed his “Turing Test” for intelligence. 1955 early chess playing programs demonstrated 1956 in Dartmouth conference birth was given to:  "Artificial Intelligence" 1957 LISP language by John McCarthy at MIT February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 18 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 19. Abridged history of artificial intelligence 1965 expert system DENDRAL started at Stanford 1965 Robinsons complete algorithm for logical reasoning 1966 expert system MACSYMA started at MIT 1969—79 Early development of knowledge-based systems 1970 implementation of the Prolog language 1972 expert system MYCIN developed at Stanford 1972 SHRDLU natural language robot demonstrated at MIT February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 19 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 20. Abridged history of artificial intelligence 1980-- AI becomes an industry 1981-- Commercial NLP system “Intellect” available from NLP group 1986-- Neural networks return to popularity 1987-- AI becomes a science 1995-- The emergence of intelligent agents 1995-2007 HLAI (Human Level AI):  AI should return to its roots of striving "machines that think, that learn” Hays and Efros (2007)  discuss the problem of filling in holes in a photograph February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 20 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 21. Abridged history of artificial intelligence 2008--Artificial General Intelligence or AGI  AGI looks for a universal algorithm for learning and acting in any environment (Halevy et al_ 2009)  learning algorithm February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 21 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 22. Applications of AI Game playing General problem solving Expert system Natural language Processing Computer vision Robotics Education Others February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 22 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 23. References Gottfredson, L.S. (1997). "Foreword to "intelligence and social policy"" Intelligence 24 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(97)90010-6. http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1997specialissue.pdf. Neisser, U.; Boodoo, G.; Bouchard Jr, T.J.; Boykin, A.W.; Brody, N.; Ceci, S.J.; Halpern, D.F.; Loehlin, J.C.; Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; Others, (1998). "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns". Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development 1997. ISBN 9780876308707. http://books.google.com/? id=gLWnmVbKdLwC&pg=PA95&dq=Intelligence:+Knowns+and+unknowns. Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; Urbina, S. (1996). "Intelligence: knowns and unknowns". American Psychologist 51. Dr. Ghassan Issa, Artificial intelligence, retrieved from: http://www.uop.edu.jo/issa/ai/ai- part1.htm, retrieved date: 04 Oct, 2011. February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 23 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 24. References Crash Course in Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems by Louise E. Frenzel.  Chapter No.1 Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach 3rd ed - S. Russell, P. Norvig (Prentice-Hall, 2010) WW  Chapter No.1 February 26, 2013 Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, 24 Lect: QACC,UOP
  • 25. Question???? February 26, 2013 Natural Language Processing (NLP) by 25 Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP
  • 26. The endFebruary 26, 2013 Natural Language Processing (NLP) by 26 Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP